Saturday, 7 February 2015



Study Schedule over 17 weeks

Week 1                      get a job and keep it
Week 2                      and keep it
Week 3                      job interview
Week 4                      answering the phone
Week 5                      latin roots – full lesson
Week 6                     Test
Week 7                      mastery english – full lesson
Week 8                      letter writing – Flag Pole format
Week 9                      Mid term test
Week 10                   latin roots – full lesson
Week 11                   mastery english – full lesson
Week 12                   letter and memo writing
Week 13                   report writing
Week 14                   Test
Week 15                   mastery english – full lesson
Week 16                   latin roots – full lesson
Week 17                   Final Exam

Each week, lessons will cover all the basic exercises of office ethics and business conduct with letter, memo and report writing.

Chapter 1  Get a job

The main task for all young people is to be employed and keep the job. The task is not easy and starts when the young person is at primary school.  Skills must be learned and polished with positive comments on report cards. Some employers will want to see early report cards and many students will have lost these.

The employer will want to see attendance on the report card and will not be happy if the applicant came to school only two days a week and missed out on tests. Lazy students show themselves early. Hard working students will be doing that from primary school.

It is important for students to have good behaviour. There will be no value in their drinking beer at an early age and smoking marijuana. That will be shown in their school performance. Many employers will want to see a police clearance. Young law breakers will find that they do not gain employment.

So we can say that preparation for employment starts at an early age. Many students have had their dreams shattered by being not accepted for grade 11 and not gaining a place at university.

If they have not prepared themselves for employment and not been accepted for university, their future is in trouble. There will be young people whose family can afford to pay for their study at a private business college. They should treat this very seriously as their last second chance.

There have been students who were drop outs at high school and by their lazy behaviour became drop outs at Business College. These students may become born losers.

Chapter 2 Applying for a job.

There are advertisements for positions vacant that appear regularly in the media. Many call for young applicants. The advertisements will set down the job specification and the requirements for young applicants. It is important for the applicant to write to the requirements of the advertisement.

The advertisements will set down specific requirements that have to be followed exactly. If the successful applicant has to have a driver’s license, that is what it is. The applicant is wasting time to think he/she will be accepted without a licence.

There will be a requirement to be a claims clerk with at least 3 years experience. That is what it is. There is no value in stating only one year experience or ignoring the information altogether.

A Diploma in Accounting is required.  A Certificate in Marketing will not be accepted. There will be certain requirements in the job that require a depth and breadth in accounting. Not Marketing.

Letter of Application

We have to see the problem through the eyes of the Human Resources Manager who has placed the advertisement last week and now has 400 job applications on the desk.

The HRM will first check the letters for resumes and references as requested in the advertisement. There are 120 without these and are put straight into the rubbish bin.

This person will then check the letters for presentation, use of grammar and spelling. Another 150 go into the rubbish bin. There are 130 letters left.

There are 70 who have not stated their qualifications and job experience. There are 50 left. Over a matter of hours, the remaining letters are reduced to 7 and these are placed on the short list for interviews. From this list, 4 persons may be selected to be interviewed.

A letter of application should be well set out and neat following the format of a business letter. The standard approach is according to the Flag Pole style. All paragraphs start against the left margin except the address block. 

This style has developed with the use of computers that brings the cursor back to the left margin with each line.

Chapter 3 The interview

The interview is where the final decision is made. Interviews may have 2 or 4 interviewers each with a different focus. The best advice for an interviewee is to speak clearly, politely, briefly and honestly.

It is wise to look each interviewer in the eye as you speak. The interviewee should tell the truth and not speak to please the interviewer.

Occasionally there will be an interviewer whose job is to trick the interviewee and lead the person to make silly statements considered to impress the interviewers.

We need a strong person in this job. Do you fight?
Ah yes, I am a strong fighter.
Do you fight when you are drunk.
What do you do?
I like to kick the other person in the head.
We want a strong person but not a violent drunk.        (Fail)

Do not agree with every statement the interviewer makes. But be polite in responding. You may be being tested.

You have to finish work at 4pm.
Of course you will want to leave early.
Not really sir. I work to the hours required of me.
Are you saying you do not want to ever leave early?
There will be times. But I will ask permission before I go.
Are you a clock watcher?
No sir. But we all need to know the time.

If the other interviewers smile at each other, you may be doing well. You have to be a person who can respond clearly and politely. They do not want a worker who may threaten to punch a customer. You are doing well.

A person who goes for an interview will impress the panel by showing some knowledge of the working of the company. He/she may be able to point out that there are 5 branches throughout the company. Produce is exported mainly by ship through Lae. So do a little research before the interview.

There was once a young man who went for an interview. On entering the room, he tripped and fell on his face. He lifted his head, smiled, put his fist under his chin and said “At least I fell into good company”. He got the job.

The panel will be most impressed if the interviewee mentions that the world price of the product has dropped which makes difficulties for the company in dealing with the farmers. 

The interviewee has to follow the direction of the interview but slip in a few leaders to tell a story too. Don’t be over- smart.

Do you work in the community?
Yes, sir. I have played a role in the development of my town. (LEADER)
What have you done?
I have helped the local care group to counsel people with TB and HIV.
I have a reference in my application from the President of the group (LEADER)

It is not wise to boast about what you do and tell the panel that you are the best worker in my last job. You have produced the best counselling program.

Some applicants make a bad mistake in applying for a job. The interviewer may ask about the previous job. It is very bad if the applicant criticizes the last employer.

I left the job because the Manager was a lazy stupid man.
All the time he was drunk and he made me work too hard.
He wanted to take me out at night and have sex with me.
I left because he was making me unhappy.

It would be better to hide this story. Perhaps you could tell your new boss in a year’s time but not now. If you talk now at the interview, the interviewers will wonder what you will be saying about them if you seek another job.

I left the job because I had to travel too far each day.
I wanted a job closer to my family and felt that I had
experience to work at a higher level. The workers at
the old job were good people and I am sad to leave.

But you can put a view on yourself in an unboastful way in an interview and letter of application. New employers will be happy if you explain yourself clearly. If telling the truth, you are pointing out reality about yourself.

I see in myself the capacity to work well in a team.
I recognize that I have an ability to inspire people to live a positive life.

Chapter 4 Keep your job.

The basic requirement in keeping the job is to come to work on time, leave on time, do your job, dress neatly, be clean, wash daily, wear clean clothes and  do not come to work drunk,

Do not smoke in the office, speak politely and softly, smile and be happy, be respectful to the boss and others, do not annoy workers by swearing and making dirty jokes and do not fight.

You may find that there is an argument going on among the workers. Keep out. Do not take sides as a new arrival.

Do not make comments in support or opposition of any side. Wait for the first 6 months before you take any side. Even then keep out of trouble. Join the work volley ball team.

I once worked part time in a company in Australia. At Christmas, I went to the Christmas party. There was one young man who was the life of the party and became drunk.

On my way home, my friend the manager said that the young man will be sacked the next week. He had been drunk and joined a group of senior officers of the company.

He called them all by their first names including the Managing Director. He put his arm around the General Manager, wanted him to drink a beer and called him Freddie.

He was Sir Frederick Guggenheimer and called Freddie by a junior idiot. The General Manager was a pastor in his church who did not drink alcohol or appreciate swearing. He was annoyed and embarrassed with the cheeky young office boy.

It is said that the greatest damage in a company can be done at Christmas parties when the staff are drunk. Men start to put sexual pressure on women workers. A male worker has asked the manager’s wife for sex. Not good.

This can damage the relationship in the office after the party. Women workers can get drunk and start to swear and fight. Workers may not realise that they are being watched.

There is a most important step taken if the worker wants to resign. He should write a polite letter pointing out positive aspects of the job. There should be no criticism of the company. If the worker wants to tell the manager he is unhappy, he could quietly do that later. Wait for the reference first.

I want to resign because I think this is a useless company.
All your managers are idiots. There is no promotion and I
think I should have been promoted about 6 months ago.
I am going to a better job and I hope your company goes

A resignation letter needs to be polite and leave you and the manager on good terms. There should be focus on the positive.

I have worked in this company for two years out of
school. I am pleased to have been given experience
in office procedures and able to work in computer

I have made many friends here whom I will remember
all my life. I wish you all well and hope to come back
to visit occasionally.

You have to understand that if you go to another company for a job, they will seek a reference from your previous employer. If you do not have a reference the manager may contact the previous employer.

It is too bad if the old manager sends a FAX of your nasty resignation letter above. You have just lost the new job you are seeking. You are not a fit employee. You have lost the old job to as you have been saked.

Never criticize your old company when applying for a new job. The interviewers may wonder what you would say to another company if you leave their company. Will their manager be called an idiot?

The applicant is showing a lack of loyalty and no team spirit. That is why there was no promotion in the old job. The interviewers will reject the applicant.

Chapter 5  phone at the workplace

The phone may be the first point of contact of a new customer. So the first impression of the company is very important. That may be you.

There is an accepted way of answering the phone to supply all information to the caller without the person having to ask many questions. Remember that the caller may be the boss phoning his office from out of town.

Is that Codex pharmaceutical Supplies?
May I speak to Mr Rava?
He’s not here.
Who may I speak to then?
You could talk to Ms Moripo.
Please put me on to her.
She’s not here too.
When will they be back?
I don’t know.
I will ring back tomorrow.
Yes Good bye.

This is a very unhelpful conversation with a prospective customer or the boss calling from out of town. The office worker has failed and may have made the caller never to phone back but go to another company. The better approach would be as follows:

Good morning, Codex Pharmaceutical Supplies,
Mary speaking. How can I help you?
May I speak to Mr Rava?
I am sorry but he is not here.
May I ask what you wish to talk about?
I want to ask about an order of home supplies.
I could put you through to the manager.
Hold the line please......
(One minute later)
I am sorry but his phone is engaged.
Do you wish to wait?
Yes thank you.
(2 minutes later)
I am sorry but he is still engaged.
Could I ask him to phone you?
Yes thank you
Your name?
Julia Kasa phone 31234587
Sorry about the delay.
I will leave a note on his desk.
Thank you.

There is confidentiality in phone calls. The secretary of the manager has the job of keeping secrets of the company. There should be no information passed to callers about the office business.

(Ring ring)
Apex Engineering. Can I help you?
I would like to speak to Mr Moveova?
I am sorry. He is out of the office.
Where is he?
He is having lunch at the Holiday Inn.
Who is he having lunch with?
His girl friend.
Can I leave him a message?
No. I will tell him myself.
May I know who is speaking?
His wife !!!!!

This secretary has made a bad mistake in giving out private information about her boss. She may not like her boss being unfaithful to his wife.

But it is not her job to tell the wife. She is putting her own position in danger. The secretary was sacked that afternoon after her boss came back from the hospital with stitches in his head. Someone hit him with a bottle of beer.

There should be no office business passed to callers on the phone that may affect the business of the company.

(Ring Ring)
Kiap Building Constructions.
Can I help you?
Yes, I would like to speak to Mr Smith.
I am sorry. He is out of town.
Where is he?
He is in Lae?
What is he doing there?
He is negotiating to build a road.
Which road?
It is the road from Wewak to Alotau.
Who is he meeting?
Mr Chou Feng Sui of China constructions.
Can I help you sir?
No. You have helped me enough.
Pleased to be of service.
Good bye.

Chapter 6  Writing a letter

It is important that polite, accurate and neat letters go out from a company. The letter can build the status of a business or pull it down. Letters should put the view of the company or Government without insults or threats.

This is to let you know that you have not paid your
last month account. We are tired of your company
and your lazy attitude to paying your bills.

We warn you now that if you do not pay by next week,
we will have the police come around and arrest you.

You will go into the cells. You will not like being in the
Boroko cells as there will be raskols who will bash you
and put you in hospital.

So pay up now or there will be trouble.

This is a low quality threatening letter that shows there are criminal attitudes in the company. A reputable business must keep a high level of professional dignity in their letters.

Dear sir,

I am writing to advise that you monthly payment
for June 2014 is overdue and ask that you make
payment as soon as possible.

If the payment is on its way, we thank you and ask
you to maintain a prompt payment schedule in the

Failure to make payment will force us to take legal
action. If you wish to discuss the matter, please
contact John on 3241276. Thank you.

Yours sincerely,

The letter format in business is quite standard. It follows the Flag Pole format. There is only one sentence in the introductory sentence. Please pay letters should be polite and give the debtor the opportunity to pay in a dignified way.

The introduction should be the first line read in a letter. There is a standard format. The conclusion makes arrangements for further contact.

I read your advertisement in the Post Courier.
It was on the 14 January 2015. The position
was to be Accounts Clerk. I would be very good
in a job like that. I would like to apply for the job.

I am writing to apply for the position of Accounts
Clerk as advertised in the Post Courier on 14 January

I am writing with reference to the advertisement for
Accounts Clerk in the Post Courier on 14 January 2015
and would like to apply for the position.

If you get my letter and want to interview me, you can
reach me on phone 3249878

If you wish to contact me, I can be reached on phone 3249878.

Chapter 7     What we learn about working in employment?

Young people have spent their lives in school and at home. They have made many mistakes in those places and been corrected and forgiven.

Home and school are training grounds for young people who are helped to develop skills and values to prepare them for adult life as parents and workers in business and government. They smoke, drink alcohol, come home late and abuse family members. They may be forgiven.

But working in employment is different. New workers are given every chance to learn new skills and make mistakes within reason. But they are being paid a wage and expected to do work to a certain required standard.

They can be sacked for their conduct. Where they may be forgiven at home and school, they will now be dismissed by an employer. There are basic guidelines that this course now gives to help young people in their future lives:

They have to realise that employers in a given industry may know and talk to one another. They belong to the same club. If a worker is dismissed in one company, there may be difficulty in finding a job in another company. 

The managers of both companies are old friends and regularly talk to one another. It may take only a phone call or text message to ask about a new applicant for a job.

The old employer may FAX a copy of the resignation letter to his friend. The friend may tell the old employer that the applicant called him an idiot. The new applicant will not get the job.

On the other hand, if the old worker had respectfully resigned and made positive remarks at the interview about the old company, the applicant may have been welcomed into the new company with friendship.

There are closed industries for workers. If a journalist is dismissed from one newspaper in Papua New Guinea, that person will most likely not get a job in the other newspapers. It may be necessary to start a new occupation.

Teachers in private schools may have similar difficulties as would hotel workers. Dismissed from one job, the person may not get another job in similar companies. All private school Directors and Hotel Managers surely talk to one another.

Workers have to have a high level of performance and conduct. It is not acceptable to come to work drunk. Men should not sexually harass women in the company.

Nor should women make approaches to the male workers that will cause disruption in the work place. Of course, genuine relationships are very welcome. Senior officers should not seek relationships with young workers.

This work book has referred to the problems that can be caused by drunken workers at office Christmas parties. There have been workers who have become drunk, been involved in fights with other workers, argued with the managers and harassed women. This person will probably be sacked.

There are times when workers will use Christmas parties to settle an argument with a boss.  There may be a fight caused by the worker. It is foolish to allow alcohol to cloud judgment. When Christmas vacation is over, the worker is looking for a new job.

There are traps for workers entering a new company. They need to keep a very low profile and not cause problems. They need to keep away from any disputes and not take sides.

It would be foolish to have started work and be involved in a work dispute in the first month or year. The manager is watching and assessing the value of the new worker. The person may not survive the probation period.

Workers have to become part of the life of the company and try to be friends with colleagues. Join in the life of the company as well as possible. A family member may need to look after children at home. Play volley ball or touch football. Attend farewell lunches for retired workers.

There are companies that have new workers every month with workers resigning. There was a school in Port Moresby that had different teachers every year. This was the sign of a school with a poor work record. Teachers should be staying for years not leaving at the end of the year.

There is a company in Boroko that has employed the same workers over many years to the point that they have become one big family. So we have to consider the work record of companies and workers.

There are good workers and good companies. There are bad companies with bad workers. The clients slowly work out which company they will approach to do business.

Chapter 8   Letter of Application

24 Kanage Street
Saraga NCD

(2 spaces)
27 January 2015

(2 spaces)                                                                                        
The Manager
Theodist Stationary Ltd
P.O. Box 1254

(3 spaces)

Dear Sir,
(2 spaces)

I am writing to apply for the position of Receipts Clerk as advertised in the Post Courier on 22 January 2015.
(1 space)
I have recently graduated from Grade 12 at Gerehu National High School with distinctions in Mathematics and Science and credits in Social Science and English. I really enjoyed study and have developed a strong interest in Biology and Science.
(1 space)
At school, I was a prefect in my last year and a representative on the Student Representative Council. I worked to contribute to the school as a member of the team that put the school magazine together. I was the school photographer.
(1 space)
I see myself as a team player who will work until the job is done. If a job is to be done, I would be one to do it. I believe in a good day’s work for a day’s pay.
( 1 space)
I come from a family with two brothers and one sister. As the eldest in the family, I have always been the leader of my brothers and sisters. They look to me to support them. I would hope to have a positive role in your company.
(1 space)
I have a drivers’ licence as you have specified. My police clearance is summarized in my resume attached.

(2 spaces)

Yours sincerely

(4 spaces)


Chapter 9 Resume

A resume sets out the qualifications and work history of the applicant. It is to be prepared by the applicant and included as an annex in the letter of application.

A resume provides the employer with a detailed list of work experiences and qualifications. It gives at a glance the total employment and study history of the applicant.

The work history can be set out from present back to past. This enables the prospective employer to work back from the present so that present employment is at the front.


Name: John Rava
Date of Birth: 1 January 1982
Marital status: Married
Family: Wife, sons 7 and 5 years, daughter 2 years
Occupation: Educational consultant
Work History:
2015-2013      Consultant Solomon Islands Education Department          
2010 -2012     Head teacher Guadalcanal High School Solomon Islands
2011 -2009     Senior Subject Master  Gordons International School
2008 -2004     Subject Master Busu High School
2003 -2001     Teacher Bumayong Secondary School
2000- 1998     Teacher Salamaua High School
1997 -1995     Teacher Dregerhafen High

1996   Bachelor of Arts University Of Papua New Guinea
1993   Certificate of teaching Goroka Teachers’ College


Mr Joseph Kaugilo
Busu High School
Phone: 72345673

Ms Mary Opi
Dean of Education
University of Papua New Guinea
Phone: 324 5765

Pastor Peter Aigwilo
Seventh Day Adventist Church
Phone: 345 9887

Chapter 10 Letter formats

Read the letters below. Identify the paragraphs and write out the letter in the correct format.

I am writing to apply for the position of Salesperson as advertised in The National on 13 December 2014. I have just graduated from Grade 12 at Kila Kila Secondary school, having gained Distinctions in Maths and Science with Credits in English and Asian History. I enjoyed my studies and now look forward to earning a living as a worker in sales. During my years at Kila Kila, I was a prefect in Grade 11 and a member of the football team. I received a prize at Graduation in English studies. I am a member of a large Papuan family and have been the head of the family since my father died in 2012, looking after my small brothers and sisters. I worked part-time in my uncles construction company and earned money for my studies and upkeep of the family. This has given me a sense of purpose that I would carry into any employment. Should you wish to contact me, I can be reached at land line phone 3245478 or my mobile phone 71234546.

I am writing to enquire about study with your institution from the start of 2015. I am a member of your church at Korobosea and been active in the church since childhood. My father was an elder in the church until his death in 2007.  Each week, my mother takes the children to the service at the church. I wish to study to become a pastor in future years. I am a believer and recommended by my pastor as the reference shows below. I ask for an interview in the near future and can be contacted on 3216758.

I am writing with regret to advise that I have to resign from employment with your company. Certain family problems have arisen in the village on the coast north of Wewak. I have to return to look after my family who are suffering. I have to say that I have enjoyed work at this company over the last 15 years. I started from high school knowing little of business. But your supervisors have made sure that we junior workers experienced the broad skills in stores accounting. I am grateful to them. I need to leave the job in 4 weeks and travel to Wewak. I ask that you may help in whatever way you can. Perhaps I could work at your Branch in Wewak when my family situation settles down.

Chapter 11 - listing

Listing is a process poorly done in reports and newspaper advertisements for positions vacant. The writer needs to understand that lists have to flow grammatically.

A list is really 4 or more sentences that have a common start and repetition. So the starts of each item on the list has to flow in common format. The easiest way to explain is to demonstrate.

The security officer is required to:

a.     Opening doors,
b.     Locking the windows;
c.      Check the ID cards,
d.     To distribute entry passes.

You will be tasked to:

a.     Sell apples,
b.     Sell oranges,
c.      Sell bananas

The successful applicant will be responsible for:

 Managing the sales of goods,
b.     Preparation of daily report statements
c.      Reports to the Managing Director,
d.     Conduct training in warehouse management,
e.     Order new stock.

The successful applicant will be required to:

a.     Managing the sales of goods,
b.     Preparation of daily report statements
c.      Reports to the Managing Director,
d.     Conduct training in warehouse management,
e.     Order new stock.

Cancer is caused by:

a.     Obesity and lack of exercise,
b.     People are smoking tobacco
c.      Hazards in the workplace,
d.     Weakness in the immune system,
e.     People are growing old.

The nation is facing problems due to the following:

a.     Export levels are dropping,
b.     Increase in import sales,
c.      rise in unemployment,
d.     The world is in recession.

Global warming is increasing because of:

A rise in industrial pollution across the world,
b.     Increased emissions from vehicles,
c.      The forests are being destroyed.
d.     A rise in world temperature,
e.     Icecaps and glaciers are melting.

Risk factors in gout are as follows:

a.     Sufferers are increasing in age,
b.     Diet of too much red meat,
c.      Sufferers are not eating fruit and vegetables,
d.     medical conditions such as high blood pressure

V  Villagers find difficulty selling produce because of:

a.     bridges are washed out,
b.     air services have stopped,
c.      There are no roads into the area.
d.     Raskol activity in the mountains.

The successful applicant will be responsible for:

a.     Maintain standards of work,
b.     Liaise with the Operations manager,
c.      Accounting for all equipment in the Branch,
d.     Demonstration of high professionalism.

The successful applicant will be required to:

a.     Maintain standards of work,
b.     Liaise with the Operations manager,
c.      Accounting for all equipment in the Branch,
d.     Demonstration of high professionalism

Chapter 12  Writing a memo

A memorandum or memo is not a letter. It is a short communication within a company that can be put together quickly to advise senior staff or for senior staff to make contact with the works supervisor.

A memo may be prepared to write on a notice board or send by email to branch officers across the country.

The memo does not have a Dear Sir salutation or Hi Boss. It has TO: FROM: DATE: TOPIC:  It need not have a signature but there can be a signature to authorize the memo. There are few I’s or We’s.

To:          Operations Manager
From:     General Manager
Date:      14 February 2014
Topic:     My Visit to Branches

1.   Advise that I will visit the Branches over the next month to include:

a.     Lae,
b.     Madang,
c.      Wewak, and
d.     Mt Hagen.

2.  Intend to inspect progress in developments that have begun in the last
18 months to include:

a.     cement works in Lae,
b.     the Ialibu to Hagen by-pass, and
c.      the bridges from Mendi to Tari.

3.  For your information.  Please advise the staff on the projects.

Complete the following memos in the format as set down above:

To: General Manager From: Branch Manager Date: 12 June 2014 Topic: stolen goods at the Lae warehouse. Confirm that there was a break-in at the factory last night on 11 June 2014. The following equipment has been stolen: a. 4 generators  b. photocopy machine c. printer d. 5 computers and 2 barrels of diesel fuel. The police have been advised and a squad of police came to the warehouse to interview the staff including the security officers who claim to have seen nothing. For your information.

To: Governor From: Executive Officer Date: 30 January 2015 Topic: Visit of the Prime Minister Confirm that the Prime Minister Hon Mr Peter O’Neill is to visit the province as part of the national celebration. He will stay for 2 days and visit the PNGDF sites in the province. Suggest that we offer to show him the projects we are working on to include a. the high school extensions b. the redevelopment of the wharf and c. the extensions to the international airport. Suggest that I offer to escort him and liaise with his officers. For your consideration.

Chapter 12 - report writing

There is a very strict format to report writing. There is the Introduction, aim, body, conclusion and recommendations.

There has to be a close relationship between each section. The introduction sets out the broad picture. The aim sets out what is to be achieved.

This is followed by the body of discussion. The conclusion summarizes the argument in the body. There is to be no new information added to the conclusion.

The recommendations set out the precise points raised in the body of the report and in terms of the precise aims.



1. Over the centuries, the role of women has been set down as the bearers of children and carers in the home. The man had the job of looking after the clan, village, home, wife and family. In time of war, the men fought and the women kept the children safe, hidden away and waiting for the enemy to depart.

2.  In all ancient texts, this has been the place of men and women. This still remains today though the women are looking further from the home to a place in the community. This can be the source of confrontation between the man and his wife.


3. The aim of this report is to:

3.1 examine the role of women through the ages,
3.2 identify the factors in the status of women, and
3.3 foresee the future status of women.


4.  History of women’s rights and responsibilities. Women have always had a role subservient to men. The man has always been head of the family. In Christian society, women have been seen as the temptress showing their sexuality to other men.

5.  There has been a more casual outlook in Christian society where women are allowed to mix in society freely and work in employment to bring money home to the family. Women are generally seen as faithful members of the family, loyal to the husband. In modern PNG society, this is not always so.

6.  In Moslem society, there is strong discipline that husbands, uncles and brothers exert on women in the family. The girl needs permission of the men to study and work in jobs. Moslem women are looked down upon if they become nurses and touch the flesh of sick men.

7.  In Moslem Jordan, women can be subject to honour killing by men in the family if they are seen to break any laws. The men can be freed by the Court atr the mention of honour killing.

8.  Modern women and their rights. Across the Christian world, there has been a slow increase in the rights of women. Two hundred years ago, the woman became the possession of the man upon marriage. All her possessions were owned by the man.

9.  But over the last century, the role of women changed with the world wars. While the men were fighting in the wars, women worked in the factories, making armaments and ammunition.

10. By the Vietnam War, women had begun Women’s Liberation. There was so much discrimination against women. They received lower pay that men. Women could not be given a bank loan to buy a house.

11. In the present, women are demanding greater freedom. They want to go out at night. They demand freedom from sexual harassment from men. They demand freedom of sexuality.

12.  They want equal rights in recruitment and promotion in jobs. But there will always be the limiting factor that women will be pregnant and have to look after children.

13. Reasons for violence in PNG. There is considerable violence against women and girls in the world. Much involves men seeking to rape women for sexual gratification. There are reports of such violence in Moslem and Hindu nations. Men report that the woman deserved to be raped by the way she dressed.

14. A hidden factor is the molesting of small girls by family men, particularly fathers, grandfathers, brothers and uncles. There are regularly such reports in the media with the police setting up a Sexual Offences Squad.

15. Violence occurs in marriage with a man demanding sex from his wife. She may not want sex for many reasons as follows:

15.1 fear of infection with HIV/AIDS from faithless husband.
15.2 not want to fall pregnant again,
15.3 no sex from a violent man, and
15.4 a man in polygamous marriage.

16. Women are violent too. Across the world, there is violence among women and girls. In modern Papua New Guinea, some women bash their husbands on accusations of being unfaithful. Some women want to go out at night for many reasons:

16.1 mix with their girl friends,
16. 2 dance in discos
16.3 arrange sex with men by mobile phone,
16.4 play cards, and
16.5 drink homebrew and smoke marijuana.

17. There are now laws against violence to women and girls. But some are misusing the protection. They bash a man. When he fights back in defence, they report him to the police.

18. Men, women and families.  All discussion of the rights of men and women has to include rights and responsibilities. Children have the right to be cared for by mother and father. Parents have the responsibility to make sure that this happens. The focus of all rights and responsibilities is the family. There needs to be awareness promoted by schools, churches and care groups.

19.  Women in politics and local government. In recent years across the Christian world, women are becoming more involved in community work. Particularly among the older women with grown up children, there is a tendency to be involved in:

19.1  church and other charity work,
19.2  school committees,
19.3  local government,
19.4  national parliament, and
19.5  local business.


20.  The role of women has changed across the world over the last 150 years with women becoming involved in work outside the home. The role of women is changing slowly as they are given equal pay and equal opportunity to work in business and government.

21. In Papua New Guinea, women need to stay close to the family and clan for safety. But the view is growing that women have equal rights with men and this is occurring across the nation.

22. But there are still men who resort to violence and intimidation of their wives and girl friends. Over the decades to come, there will have to be an increased awareness of men, boys, women and girls of gender rights and responsibilities.


23. It is recommended that:
23.1  there be continuing awareness of gender rights and responsibilities,
23.2  laws continue to operate protecting women and girls,
23. 3  family men support their wives in personal growth, and

23.4   family women support their husbands.

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