faith, hope, peace, love, truth, compassion, trust, patience, honesty, kindness, family, friends, forgiveness, fellowship, work, sleep, exercise, relax, clean water, morning sun, nutritious food, fresh vegetables, fruit, grains and nuts, rights, responsibilities, obligations, clean blood and tissues, clean in body, mind and soul AND FREEDOM FROM hate, greed, fear, stress, violence, rejection, infection, starvation, beer, homebrew, tobacco, marijuana and drugs (Christian and Buddhist teachings)
Saturday, 7 February 2015
CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
Study Schedule over 17 weeks
1 get a job and keep
2 and keep it
3 job interview
4 answering the phone
5 latin roots – full
7 mastery english –
8 letter writing – Flag Pole format
9 Mid term test
10 latin roots – full
11 mastery english –
12 letter and memo
13 report writing
15 mastery english –
16 latin roots – full
17 Final Exam
week, lessons will cover all the basic exercises of office ethics and business
conduct with letter, memo and report writing.
Chapter 1 Get
The main task for all young people is
to be employed and keep the job. The task is not easy and starts when the young
person is at primary school. Skills must
be learned and polished with positive comments on report cards. Some employers
will want to see early report cards and many students will have lost these.
The employer will want to see
attendance on the report card and will not be happy if the applicant came to
school only two days a week and missed out on tests. Lazy students show
themselves early. Hard working students will be doing that from primary school.
It is important for students to have
good behaviour. There will be no value in their drinking beer at an early age
and smoking marijuana. That will be shown in their school performance. Many
employers will want to see a police clearance. Young law breakers will find
that they do not gain employment.
So we can say that preparation for
employment starts at an early age. Many students have had their dreams
shattered by being not accepted for grade 11 and not gaining a place at
If they have not prepared themselves
for employment and not been accepted for university, their future is in
trouble. There will be young people whose family can afford to pay for their
study at a private business college. They should treat this very seriously as
their last second chance.
There have been students who were
drop outs at high school and by their lazy behaviour became drop outs at
Business College. These students may become born losers.
Chapter 2 Applying for a job.
There are advertisements for
positions vacant that appear regularly in the media. Many call for young
applicants. The advertisements will set down the job specification and the
requirements for young applicants. It is important for the applicant to write
to the requirements of the advertisement.
The advertisements will set down
specific requirements that have to be followed exactly. If the successful
applicant has to have a driver’s license, that is what it is. The applicant is
wasting time to think he/she will be accepted without a licence.
There will be a requirement to be a
claims clerk with at least 3 years experience. That is what it is. There is no
value in stating only one year experience or ignoring the information
A Diploma in Accounting is required. A Certificate in Marketing will not be
accepted. There will be certain requirements in the job that require a depth
and breadth in accounting. Not Marketing.
We have to see the problem through
the eyes of the Human Resources Manager who has placed the advertisement last
week and now has 400 job applications on the desk.
The HRM will first check the letters
for resumes and references as requested in the advertisement. There are 120
without these and are put straight into the rubbish bin.
This person will then check the
letters for presentation, use of grammar and spelling. Another 150 go into the
rubbish bin. There are 130 letters left.
There are 70 who have not stated
their qualifications and job experience. There are 50 left. Over a matter of
hours, the remaining letters are reduced to 7 and these are placed on the short
list for interviews. From this list, 4 persons may be selected to be
A letter of application should be
well set out and neat following the format of a business letter. The standard
approach is according to the Flag Pole style. All paragraphs start against the
left margin except the address block.
This style has developed with the use of
computers that brings the cursor back to the left margin with each line.
Chapter 3 The interview
The interview is where the final
decision is made. Interviews may have 2 or 4 interviewers each with a different
focus. The best advice for an interviewee is to speak clearly, politely,
briefly and honestly.
It is wise to look each interviewer
in the eye as you speak. The interviewee should tell the truth and not speak to
please the interviewer.
Occasionally there will be an
interviewer whose job is to trick the interviewee and lead the person to make
silly statements considered to impress the interviewers.
a strong person in this job. Do you fight?
Ah yes, I am a
fight when you are drunk.
I like to kick
the other person in the head.
a strong person but not a violent drunk. (Fail)
Do not agree with every statement the interviewer
makes. But be polite in responding. You may be being tested.
have to finish work at 4pm.
course you will want to leave early.
Not really sir. I
work to the hours required of me.
saying you do not want to ever leave early?
There will be
times. But I will ask permission before I go.
a clock watcher?
No sir. But we
all need to know the time.
If the other interviewers smile at each other, you may
be doing well. You have to be a person who can respond clearly and politely.
They do not want a worker who may threaten to punch a customer. You are doing
A person who goes for an interview
will impress the panel by showing some knowledge of the working of the company.
He/she may be able to point out that there are 5 branches throughout the
company. Produce is exported mainly by ship through Lae. So do a little
research before the interview.
There was once a young man who went for
an interview. On entering the room, he tripped and fell on his face. He lifted
his head, smiled, put his fist under his chin and said “At least I fell into
good company”. He got the job.
panel will be most impressed if the interviewee mentions that the world price
of the product has dropped which makes difficulties for the company in dealing
with the farmers.
The interviewee has to follow the direction of the interview
but slip in a few leaders to tell a story too. Don’t be over- smart.
work in the community?
Yes, sir. I have
played a role in the development of my town. (LEADER)
have you done?
I have helped the
local care group to counsel people with TB and HIV.
I have a
reference in my application from the President of the group (LEADER)
It is not wise to boast about what you do and tell the
panel that you are the best worker in my last job. You have produced the best
Some applicants make a bad mistake in applying for a
job. The interviewer may ask about the previous job. It is very bad if the
applicant criticizes the last employer.
I left the job
because the Manager was a lazy stupid man.
All the time he
was drunk and he made me work too hard.
He wanted to take
me out at night and have sex with me.
I left because he
was making me unhappy.
It would be better to hide this story. Perhaps you
could tell your new boss in a year’s time but not now. If you talk now at the
interview, the interviewers will wonder what you will be saying about them if
you seek another job.
I left the job
because I had to travel too far each day.
I wanted a job
closer to my family and felt that I had
work at a higher level. The workers at
the old job were
good people and I am sad to leave.
But you can put a view on yourself in an unboastful
way in an interview and letter of application. New employers will be happy if
you explain yourself clearly. If telling the truth, you are pointing out
reality about yourself.
I see in myself
the capacity to work well in a team.
I recognize that
I have an ability to inspire people to live a positive life.
4 Keep your job.
The basic requirement in keeping the job is to come to
work on time, leave on time, do your job, dress neatly, be clean, wash daily,
wear clean clothes and do not come to
Do not smoke in the office, speak politely and softly,
smile and be happy, be respectful to the boss and others, do not annoy workers
by swearing and making dirty jokes and do not fight.
You may find that there is an argument going on among
the workers. Keep out. Do not take sides as a new arrival.
Do not make comments in support or opposition of any
side. Wait for the first 6 months before you take any side. Even then keep out
of trouble. Join the work volley ball team.
I once worked part time in a company in Australia. At
Christmas, I went to the Christmas party. There was one young man who was the
life of the party and became drunk.
On my way home, my friend the manager said that the
young man will be sacked the next week. He had been drunk and joined a group of
senior officers of the company.
He called them all by their first names including the
Managing Director. He put his arm around the General Manager, wanted him to
drink a beer and called him Freddie.
He was Sir Frederick Guggenheimer and called Freddie
by a junior idiot. The General Manager was a pastor in his church who did not
drink alcohol or appreciate swearing. He was annoyed and embarrassed with the
cheeky young office boy.
It is said that
the greatest damage in a company can be done at Christmas parties when the
staff are drunk. Men start to put sexual pressure on women workers. A male
worker has asked the manager’s wife for sex. Not good.
This can damage the relationship in the office after
the party. Women workers can get drunk and start to swear and fight. Workers
may not realise that they are being watched.
There is a most important step taken if the worker
wants to resign. He should write a polite letter pointing out positive aspects
of the job. There should be no criticism of the company. If the worker wants to
tell the manager he is unhappy, he could quietly do that later. Wait for the
I want to resign
because I think this is a useless company.
All your managers
are idiots. There is no promotion and I
think I should
have been promoted about 6 months ago.
I am going to a
better job and I hope your company goes
A resignation letter needs to be
polite and leave you and the manager on good terms. There should be focus on
I have worked in
this company for two years out of
school. I am
pleased to have been given experience
procedures and able to work in computer
I have made many
friends here whom I will remember
all my life. I
wish you all well and hope to come back
You have to understand that if you go to another
company for a job, they will seek a reference from your previous employer. If
you do not have a reference the manager may contact the previous employer.
It is too bad if the old manager sends a FAX of your
nasty resignation letter above. You have just lost the new job you are seeking.
You are not a fit employee. You have lost the old job to as you have been
Never criticize your old company when applying for a
new job. The interviewers may wonder what you would say to another company if
you leave their company. Will their manager be called an idiot?
The applicant is showing a lack of loyalty and no team
spirit. That is why there was no promotion in the old job. The interviewers
will reject the applicant.
Chapter 5 phone at
The phone may
be the first point of contact of a new customer. So the first impression of the
company is very important. That may be you.
There is an
accepted way of answering the phone to supply all information to the caller
without the person having to ask many questions. Remember that the caller may
be the boss phoning his office from out of town.
Is that Codex pharmaceutical Supplies?
May I speak to Mr Rava?
He’s not here.
Who may I speak to then?
You could talk to Ms Moripo.
Please put me on to her.
She’s not here too.
When will they be back?
I don’t know.
I will ring back tomorrow.
Yes Good bye.
This is a very
unhelpful conversation with a prospective customer or the boss calling from out
of town. The office worker has failed and may have made the caller never to
phone back but go to another company. The better approach would be as follows:
Good morning, Codex Pharmaceutical Supplies,
Mary speaking. How can I help you?
May I speak to Mr Rava?
I am sorry but he is not here.
May I ask what you wish to talk about?
I want to ask about an order of home supplies.
I could put you through to the manager.
Hold the line please......
I am sorry but his phone is engaged.
Do you wish to wait?
Yes thank you.
(2 minutes later)
I am sorry but he is still engaged.
Could I ask him to phone you?
Yes thank you
Julia Kasa phone 31234587
Sorry about the delay.
I will leave a note on his desk.
There is confidentiality in phone calls. The secretary
of the manager has the job of keeping secrets of the company. There should be
no information passed to callers about the office business.
Can I help you?
like to speak to Mr Moveova?
I am sorry. He is
out of the office.
He is having
lunch at the Holiday Inn.
he having lunch with?
His girl friend.
Can I leave him a
will tell him myself.
May I know who is
This secretary has made a bad mistake in giving out
private information about her boss. She may not like her boss being unfaithful
to his wife.
But it is not her job to tell the wife. She is putting
her own position in danger. The secretary was sacked that afternoon after her
boss came back from the hospital with stitches in his head. Someone hit him
with a bottle of beer.
There should be
no office business passed to callers on the phone that may affect the business
of the company.
Kiap Building Constructions.
Can I help you?
Yes, I would like to speak to Mr Smith.
I am sorry. He is out of town.
Where is he?
He is in Lae?
What is he doing there?
He is negotiating to build a road.
It is the road from Wewak to Alotau.
Who is he meeting?
Mr Chou Feng Sui of China constructions.
Can I help you sir?
No. You have helped me enough.
Pleased to be of service.
Chapter 6 Writing a letter
It is important that polite, accurate and neat letters
go out from a company. The letter can build the status of a business or pull it
down. Letters should put the view of the company or Government without insults
This is to let
you know that you have not paid your
account. We are tired of your company
and your lazy
attitude to paying your bills.
We warn you now
that if you do not pay by next week,
we will have the
police come around and arrest you.
You will go into
the cells. You will not like being in the
Boroko cells as
there will be raskols who will bash you
and put you in
So pay up now or
there will be trouble.
This is a low quality threatening letter that shows
there are criminal attitudes in the company. A reputable business must keep a
high level of professional dignity in their letters.
I am writing to
advise that you monthly payment
for June 2014 is
overdue and ask that you make
payment as soon
If the payment is
on its way, we thank you and ask
you to maintain a
prompt payment schedule in the
Failure to make
payment will force us to take legal
action. If you
wish to discuss the matter, please
contact John on
3241276. Thank you.
The letter format in business is quite standard. It
follows the Flag Pole format. There is only one sentence in the introductory
sentence. Please pay letters should be polite and give the debtor the
opportunity to pay in a dignified way.
The introduction should be the first line read in a
letter. There is a standard format. The conclusion makes arrangements for
read your advertisement in the Post Courier.
was on the 14 January 2015. The position
to be Accounts Clerk. I would be very good
a job like that. I would like to apply for the job.
I am writing to apply for the position of Accounts
Clerk as advertised in the Post Courier on 14 January
I am writing with reference to the advertisement for
Accounts Clerk in the Post Courier on 14 January 2015
and would like to apply for the position.
If you get my
letter and want to interview me, you can
reach me on phone
If you wish to contact me, I can be reached on phone
What we learn about working in employment?
Young people have spent their lives
in school and at home. They have made many mistakes in those places and been
corrected and forgiven.
Home and school are training grounds
for young people who are helped to develop skills and values to prepare them
for adult life as parents and workers in business and government. They smoke,
drink alcohol, come home late and abuse family members. They may be forgiven.
But working in employment is
different. New workers are given every chance to learn new skills and make
mistakes within reason. But they are being paid a wage and expected to do work
to a certain required standard.
They can be sacked for their conduct.
Where they may be forgiven at home and school, they will now be dismissed by an
employer. There are basic guidelines that this course now gives to help young
people in their future lives:
They have to realise that employers
in a given industry may know and talk to one another. They belong to the same
club. If a worker is dismissed in one company, there may be difficulty in
finding a job in another company.
The managers of both companies are
old friends and regularly talk to one another. It may take only a phone call or
text message to ask about a new applicant for a job.
The old employer may FAX a copy of
the resignation letter to his friend. The friend may tell the old employer that
the applicant called him an idiot. The new applicant will not get the job.
On the other hand, if the old worker
had respectfully resigned and made positive remarks at the interview about the
old company, the applicant may have been welcomed into the new company with
There are closed industries for
workers. If a journalist is dismissed from one newspaper in Papua New Guinea,
that person will most likely not get a job in the other newspapers. It may be
necessary to start a new occupation.
Teachers in private schools may have
similar difficulties as would hotel workers. Dismissed from one job, the person
may not get another job in similar companies. All private school Directors and
Hotel Managers surely talk to one another.
Workers have to have a high level of
performance and conduct. It is not acceptable to come to work drunk. Men should
not sexually harass women in the company.
Nor should women make approaches to
the male workers that will cause disruption in the work place. Of course,
genuine relationships are very welcome. Senior officers should not seek
relationships with young workers.
This work book has referred to the
problems that can be caused by drunken workers at office Christmas parties.
There have been workers who have become drunk, been involved in fights with
other workers, argued with the managers and harassed women. This person will
probably be sacked.
There are times when workers will use
Christmas parties to settle an argument with a boss. There may be a fight caused by the worker. It
is foolish to allow alcohol to cloud judgment. When Christmas vacation is over,
the worker is looking for a new job.
There are traps for workers entering
a new company. They need to keep a very low profile and not cause problems.
They need to keep away from any disputes and not take sides.
It would be foolish to have started work
and be involved in a work dispute in the first month or year. The manager is
watching and assessing the value of the new worker. The person may not survive
the probation period.
Workers have to become part of the
life of the company and try to be friends with colleagues. Join in the life of
the company as well as possible. A family member may need to look after
children at home. Play volley ball or touch football. Attend farewell lunches
for retired workers.
There are companies that have new
workers every month with workers resigning. There was a school in Port Moresby
that had different teachers every year. This was the sign of a school with a
poor work record. Teachers should be staying for years not leaving at the end
of the year.
There is a company in Boroko that has
employed the same workers over many years to the point that they have become
one big family. So we have to consider the work record of companies and
There are good workers and good
companies. There are bad companies with bad workers. The clients slowly work
out which company they will approach to do business.
Chapter 8 Letter
24 Kanage Street
27 January 2015
P.O. Box 1254
I am writing to apply for the position of Receipts
Clerk as advertised in the Post Courier on 22 January 2015.
I have recently graduated from Grade 12 at Gerehu
National High School with distinctions in Mathematics and Science and credits
in Social Science and English. I really enjoyed study and have developed a
strong interest in Biology and Science.
At school, I was a prefect in my last year and a
representative on the Student Representative Council. I worked to contribute to
the school as a member of the team that put the school magazine together. I was
the school photographer.
I see myself as a team player who will work until the
job is done. If a job is to be done, I would be one to do it. I believe in a
good day’s work for a day’s pay.
( 1 space)
I come from a family with two brothers and one sister.
As the eldest in the family, I have always been the leader of my brothers and
sisters. They look to me to support them. I would hope to have a positive role
in your company.
I have a drivers’ licence as you have specified. My
police clearance is summarized in my resume attached.
Chapter 9 Resume
A resume sets out the qualifications
and work history of the applicant. It is to be prepared by the applicant and
included as an annex in the letter of application.
A resume provides the employer with a
detailed list of work experiences and qualifications. It gives at a glance the
total employment and study history of the applicant.
The work history can be set out from
present back to past. This enables the prospective employer to work back from
the present so that present employment is at the front.
Name: John Rava
Date of Birth: 1 January 1982
Marital status: Married
Family: Wife, sons 7 and 5 years, daughter
Occupation: Educational consultant
2015-2013 Consultant Solomon Islands Education
2010 -2012 Head teacher Guadalcanal High School
2011 -2009 Senior Subject Master Gordons International School
2008 -2004 Subject Master Busu High School
2003 -2001 Teacher Bumayong Secondary School
2000- 1998 Teacher Salamaua High School
1997 -1995 Teacher Dregerhafen High
Bachelor of Arts University Of Papua New Guinea
Certificate of teaching Goroka Teachers’ College
Mr Joseph Kaugilo
Ms Mary Opi
Papua New Guinea
Phone: 324 5765
Pastor Peter Aigwilo
Phone: 345 9887
Chapter 10 Letter formats
Read the letters below. Identify the
paragraphs and write out the letter in the correct format.
I am writing to apply for the
position of Salesperson as advertised in The National on 13 December 2014. I
have just graduated from Grade 12 at Kila Kila Secondary school, having gained
Distinctions in Maths and Science with Credits in English and Asian History. I
enjoyed my studies and now look forward to earning a living as a worker in
sales. During my years at Kila Kila, I was a prefect in Grade 11 and a member
of the football team. I received a prize at Graduation in English studies. I am
a member of a large Papuan family and have been the head of the family since my
father died in 2012, looking after my small brothers and sisters. I worked
part-time in my uncles construction company and earned money for my studies and
upkeep of the family. This has given me a sense of purpose that I would carry
into any employment. Should you wish to contact me, I can be reached at land
line phone 3245478 or my mobile phone 71234546.
I am writing to enquire about study
with your institution from the start of 2015. I am a member of your church at
Korobosea and been active in the church since childhood. My father was an elder
in the church until his death in 2007.
Each week, my mother takes the children to the service at the church. I
wish to study to become a pastor in future years. I am a believer and
recommended by my pastor as the reference shows below. I ask for an interview
in the near future and can be contacted on 3216758.
I am writing with regret to advise
that I have to resign from employment with your company. Certain family
problems have arisen in the village on the coast north of Wewak. I have to
return to look after my family who are suffering. I have to say that I have
enjoyed work at this company over the last 15 years. I started from high school
knowing little of business. But your supervisors have made sure that we junior
workers experienced the broad skills in stores accounting. I am grateful to
them. I need to leave the job in 4 weeks and travel to Wewak. I ask that you
may help in whatever way you can. Perhaps I could work at your Branch in Wewak
when my family situation settles down.
Chapter 11 - listing
Listing is a process poorly done in
reports and newspaper advertisements for positions vacant. The writer needs to
understand that lists have to flow grammatically.
A list is really 4 or more sentences
that have a common start and repetition. So the starts of each item on the list
has to flow in common format. The easiest way to explain is to demonstrate.
The security officer is required to:
b.Locking the windows;
c.Check the ID cards,
d.To distribute entry
You will be tasked to:
The successful applicant will be
Managing the sales of
b.Preparation of daily
c.Reports to the Managing
d.Conduct training in
e.Order new stock.
The successful applicant will be
a.Managing the sales of
b.Preparation of daily
c.Reports to the Managing Director,
d.Conduct training in
e.Order new stock.
Cancer is caused by:
a.Obesity and lack of
b.People are smoking tobacco
c.Hazards in the workplace,
d.Weakness in the immune
e.People are growing old.
The nation is facing problems due to the
a.Export levels are
b.Increase in import sales,
c.rise in unemployment,
d.The world is in recession.
Global warming is increasing because
A rise in industrial
pollution across the world,
b.Increased emissions from
c.The forests are being
d.A rise in world
e.Icecaps and glaciers are
Risk factors in gout are as follows:
a.Sufferers are increasing
b.Diet of too much red meat,
c.Sufferers are not eating
fruit and vegetables,
d.medical conditions such as
high blood pressure
V Villagers find difficulty selling
produce because of:
a.bridges are washed out,
b.air services have stopped,
c.There are no roads into
d.Raskol activity in the
The successful applicant will be responsible
a.Maintain standards of
b.Liaise with the Operations
c.Accounting for all
equipment in the Branch,
d.Demonstration of high
The successful applicant will be required
a.Maintain standards of
b.Liaise with the Operations
c.Accounting for all
equipment in the Branch,
d.Demonstration of high
Chapter 12 Writing a memo
A memorandum or
memo is not a letter. It is a short communication within a company that can be
put together quickly to advise senior staff or for senior staff to make contact
with the works supervisor.
A memo may be
prepared to write on a notice board or send by email to branch officers across
The memo does
not have a Dear Sir salutation or Hi Boss. It has TO: FROM:DATE: TOPIC: It need not have a signature but there can be
a signature to authorize the memo. There are few I’s or We’s.
To: Operations Manager
From: General Manager
Date: 14 February 2014
Topic: My Visit to Branches
1. Advise that I will visit the Branches over
the next month to include:
2. Intend to inspect progress in developments
that have begun in the last
18 months to
works in Lae,
Ialibu to Hagen by-pass, and
bridges from Mendi to Tari.
3. For your information. Please advise the staff on the projects.
following memos in the format as set down above:
To: General Manager From: Branch Manager Date:
12 June 2014 Topic: stolen goods at
the Lae warehouse. Confirm that there was a break-in at the factory last night
on 11 June 2014. The following equipment has been stolen: a. 4 generators b. photocopy machine c. printer d. 5
computers and 2 barrels of diesel fuel. The police have been advised and a
squad of police came to the warehouse to interview the staff including the
security officers who claim to have seen nothing. For your information.
To: Governor From: Executive Officer Date:
30 January 2015 Topic: Visit of the
Prime Minister Confirm that the Prime Minister Hon Mr Peter O’Neill is to visit
the province as part of the national celebration. He will stay for 2 days and
visit the PNGDF sites in the province. Suggest that we offer to show him the
projects we are working on to include a. the high school extensions b. the
redevelopment of the wharf and c. the extensions to the international airport.
Suggest that I offer to escort him and liaise with his officers. For your
consideration. Chapter 12 - report writing
There is a very strict format to
report writing. There is the Introduction, aim, body, conclusion and
There has to be a close relationship
between each section. The introduction
sets out the broad picture. The aim
sets out what is to be achieved.
This is followed by the body of discussion. The conclusion summarizes the
argument in the body. There is to be no new information added to the
The recommendations set out the precise points raised in the
body of the report and in terms of the precise aims.
REPORT ON ROLE OF WOMEN IN PAPUA NEW
Over the centuries, the role of women has been set down as the bearers of
children and carers in the home. The man had the job of looking after the clan,
village, home, wife and family. In time of war, the men fought and the women
kept the children safe, hidden away and waiting for the enemy to depart.
2. In all ancient texts, this has been the place
of men and women. This still remains today though the women are looking further
from the home to a place in the community. This can be the source of
confrontation between the man and his wife.
The aim of this report is to:
examine the role of women through the ages,
identify the factors in the status of women, and
foresee the future status of women.
of women’s rights and responsibilities.
Women have always had a role subservient to men. The man has always been head
of the family. In Christian society, women have been seen as the temptress
showing their sexuality to other men.
5. There has been a more casual outlook in
Christian society where women are allowed to mix in society freely and work in
employment to bring money home to the family. Women are generally seen as
faithful members of the family, loyal to the husband. In modern PNG society,
this is not always so.
6. In Moslem society, there is strong discipline
that husbands, uncles and brothers exert on women in the family. The girl needs
permission of the men to study and work in jobs. Moslem women are looked down
upon if they become nurses and touch the flesh of sick men.
7. In Moslem Jordan, women can be subject to
honour killing by men in the family if they are seen to break any laws. The men
can be freed by the Court atr the mention of honour killing.
women and their rights. Across the Christian
world, there has been a slow increase in the rights of women. Two hundred years
ago, the woman became the possession of the man upon marriage. All her
possessions were owned by the man.
9. But over the last century, the role of women
changed with the world wars. While the men were fighting in the wars, women
worked in the factories, making armaments and ammunition.
By the Vietnam War, women had begun Women’s Liberation. There was so much
discrimination against women. They received lower pay that men. Women could not
be given a bank loan to buy a house.
In the present, women are demanding greater freedom. They want to go out at
night. They demand freedom from sexual harassment from men. They demand freedom
12. They want equal rights in recruitment and
promotion in jobs. But there will always be the limiting factor that women will
be pregnant and have to look after children.
Reasons for violence in PNG.
There is considerable violence against women and girls in the world. Much
involves men seeking to rape women for sexual gratification. There are reports
of such violence in Moslem and Hindu nations. Men report that the woman
deserved to be raped by the way she dressed.
A hidden factor is the molesting of small girls by family men, particularly
fathers, grandfathers, brothers and uncles. There are regularly such reports in
the media with the police setting up a Sexual Offences Squad.
Violence occurs in marriage with a man demanding sex from his wife. She may not
want sex for many reasons as follows:
fear of infection with HIV/AIDS from faithless husband.
not want to fall pregnant again,
no sex from a violent man, and
a man in polygamous marriage.
Women are violent too. Across
the world, there is violence among women and girls. In modern Papua New Guinea,
some women bash their husbands on accusations of being unfaithful. Some women
want to go out at night for many reasons:
mix with their girl friends,
2 dance in discos
arrange sex with men by mobile phone,
play cards, and
drink homebrew and smoke marijuana.
There are now laws against violence to women and girls. But some are misusing
the protection. They bash a man. When he fights back in defence, they report
him to the police.
Men, women and families. All discussion of the rights of men and women
has to include rights and responsibilities. Children have the right to be cared
for by mother and father. Parents have the responsibility to make sure that
this happens. The focus of all rights and responsibilities is the family. There
needs to be awareness promoted by schools, churches and care groups.
in politics and local government. In recent years across the Christian
world, women are becoming more involved in community work. Particularly among
the older women with grown up children, there is a tendency to be involved in:
19.1 church and other charity work,
19.2 school committees,
19.3 local government,
19.4 national parliament, and
19.5 local business.
role of women has changed across the world over the last 150 years with women
becoming involved in work outside the home. The role of women is changing
slowly as they are given equal pay and equal opportunity to work in business
In Papua New Guinea, women need to stay close to the family and clan for
safety. But the view is growing that women have equal rights with men and this
is occurring across the nation.
But there are still men who resort to violence and intimidation of their wives
and girl friends. Over the decades to come, there will have to be an increased
awareness of men, boys, women and girls of gender rights and responsibilities.
23. It is recommended that:
23.1 there be continuing awareness of gender
rights and responsibilities,
23.2 laws continue to operate protecting women and
23. 3 family men support their wives in personal