Sunday, 22 February 2015



Taken from Wikipedia on Google

Latin ( i/ˈlætɨn/; Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈliŋɡwa laˈtiːna]; the noun lingua, "tongue" and "language", and the adjective latinus, latina and latinum in its three genders, "Latin") is an ancient Italic language[3] originally spoken by the Italic Latins in Latium and Ancient Rome. Along with most European languages, it is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language

Influenced by the Etruscan language and using the Greek alphabet as a basis, it took form as what is recognizable as Latin in the Italian Peninsula. Modern Romance languages are continuations of dialectal forms (vulgar Latin) of the language. Additionally many students, scholars, and some members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and it is still taught in some primary, secondary and post-secondary educational institutions around the world.

Latin is still used in the creation of new words in modern languages of many different families, including English, and largely in biological taxonomy. Latin and its derivative Romance languages are the only surviving languages of the Italic language family. Other languages of the Italic branch were attested in the inscriptions of early Italy, but were assimilated to Latin during the Roman Republic.

The extensive use of elements from vernacular speech by the earliest authors and inscriptions of the Roman Republic make it clear that the original, unwritten language of the Roman Kingdom was an only partially deducible colloquial form, the predecessor to Vulgar Latin. By the arrival of the late Roman Republic, a standard, literate form had arisen from the speech of the educated, now referred to as Classical Latin. Vulgar Latin, by contrast, is the name given to the more rapidly changing colloquial language, which was spoken throughout the empire.

Because of the Roman conquests, Latin spread to many Mediterranean and some northern European regions, and the dialects spoken in these areas, mixed to various degrees with the indigenous languages, developed into the modern Romance tongues.[7] Classical Latin slowly changed with the decline of the Roman Empire, as education and wealth became ever scarcer. 

The consequent Medieval Latin, influenced by various Germanic and proto-Romance languages until expurgated by Renaissance scholars, was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars.

Latin is a highly inflected language, with three distinct genders, seven noun cases, four verb conjugations, six tenses, three persons, three moods, two voices, two aspects, and two numbers. A dual number ("a pair of") is present in Old Latin. The rarest of the seven cases is the locative, only marked in proper place names and a few common nouns. 

Otherwise, the locative function ("place where") has merged with the ablative. The vocative, a case of direct address, is marked by an ending only in words of the second declension. Otherwise, the vocative has merged with the nominative, except that the particle O typically precedes any vocative, marked or not.

As a result of this case ambiguity, different authors list different numbers of cases: 5, 6, or 7. Adjectives and adverbs are compared, and the former are inflected according to case, gender, and number. In view of the fact that adjectives are often used for nouns, the two are termed substantives. 

Although Classical Latin has demonstrative pronouns indicating different degrees of proximity ("this one here", "that one there"), it does not have articles. Later Romance language articles developed from the demonstrative pronouns, e.g. le and la (French) from ille and illa, and su and sa (Sardinian) from ipse and ipsa.

Latin influence in English has been significant at all stages of its insular development. In the medieval period, much borrowing from Latin occurred through ecclesiastical usage established by Saint Augustine of Canterbury in the sixth century, or indirectly after the Norman Conquest through the Anglo-Norman language. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobbled together huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek words. 

These were dubbed "inkhorn terms", as if they had spilled from a pot of ink. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten. Some useful ones, though, survived, such as 'imbibe' and 'extrapolate'. Many of the most common polysyllabic English words are of Latin origin, through the medium of Old French.

Due to the influence of Roman governance and Roman technology on the less developed nations under Roman dominion, those nations adopted Latin phraseology in some specialized areas, such as science, technology, medicine, and law. For example, the Linnaean system of plant and animal classification was heavily influenced by Historia Naturalis, an encyclopedia of people, places, plants, animals, and things published by Pliny the Elder

Roman medicine, recorded in the works of such physicians as Galen, established that today's medical terminology would be primarily derived from Latin and Greek words, the Greek being filtered through the Latin. Roman engineering had the same effect on scientific terminology as a whole. Latin law principles have survived partly in a long list of legal Latin terms.

Many international auxiliary languages have been heavily influenced by Latin. Interlingua, which lays claim to a sizable following, is sometimes considered a simplified, modern version of the language. Latino sine Flexione, popular in the early 20th century, is Latin with its inflections stripped away, among other grammatical changes.

An Introduction to a Brief History of the Latin Language

written by: John Garger • edited by: Rebecca Scudder • updated: 4/23/2012

The Latin language has survived in one form or another for over 2,000 years. It is both the cognate and parent of many modern languages. Learn about the origin of Latin in this first article in a series of eight.

The influence of the Roman Empire throughout the world is undeniable. Art, poetry, music, and architecture have especially benefited from the ingenuity of a civilization that at one time spanned from Northern Africa to the waters of the British Isles. However, culture does not spread without communication, that necessary link to human exchange of knowledge called language. Like all languages,

Latin’s life stretches beyond pre-history, its origins forever lost. What we do know about Latin survives to use in a sporadic collection of writings that only hint at the language’s rich history.
Throughout the early part of the first millennium B.C., the Italian peninsula was subject to a string of wars and conflicts where multiple cultures battled for supremacy.

The ebb and tide of some factions’ strength made lasting impressions on the peninsula and influenced the beginnings of Roman history to the extent that Latin almost surely would have perished had certain powers not won out over their rivals.

The Italic family of the centum branch of Indo-European languages is where Latin finds a home, among a multitude of languages and dialects. Some of the modern Romance languages that owe their origin to Latin are French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian. English, however, is often mistaken for a Romance language by beginning Latin students because of the huge number of words in English with direct and indirect Latin origins.

History of the Latin Language

Latin is the language that was originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. It gained great importance as the formal language of the Roman Empire. All Romance languages are descended from Latin, and many words based on Latin are found in other modern languages such as English. It is said that 80% of scholarly English words are derived from Latin (in a large number of cases by way of French). Moreover, in the Western world,

Latin was a lingua franca, the learned language for scientific and political affairs, for more than a thousand years, being eventually replaced by French in the 18th century and English in the late 19th. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the formal language of the Roman Catholic Church to this day, which makes it the official national language of the Vatican. The Church used Latin as its primary liturgical language until the Second Vatican Council in the 1960s. Latin is also still used (drawing heavily on Greek roots) to furnish the names used in the scientific classification of living things.

After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Latin evolved into the various Romance languages. These were for many centuries only spoken languages, Latin being still used for writing. (For example, Latin was the official language of Portugal until 1296 when it was replaced by Portuguese.

The Romance languages evolved from Vulgar Latin, the spoken language of common usage, which in turn evolved from an older speech which also produced the formal classical standard. Latin and Romance differ (for example) in that Romance had distinctive stress, whereas Latin had distinctive length of vowels. In Italian and Sardo logudorese, there is distinctive length of consonants and stress, in Spanish only distinctive stress, and in French even stress is no longer distinctive.

Another major distinction between Romance and Latin is that Romance languages, excluding Romanian, have lost their case endings in most words except for some pronouns. Romanian still has five cases (though the ablative case is no longer represented.

Latin and English

English grammar is independent of Latin grammar, though prescriptive grammarians in English have been influenced by Latin. Attempts to make English grammar follow Latin rules-such as the prohibition against the split infinitive-have not worked successfully in regular usage. However, as many as half the words in English were derived from Latin, including many words of Greek origin first adopted by the Romans, not to mention the thousands of French, Spanish, and Italian words of Latin origin that have also enriched English.

During the 16th and on through the 18th century English writers created huge numbers of new words from Latin and Greek roots. These words, dubbed “inkhorn” or “inkpot” words (as if they had spilled from a pot of ink), were rich in flavour and meaning. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten, but some remain. Imbibe, extrapolate, and inebriation are all inkhorn terms carved from Latin and Greek words.

Latin was once taught in most British schools. However, after the introduction of the Modern Language GCSE, it was gradually replaced by other languages, although it is now being taught by more schools along with other classical languages.

What have we learned from the texts above?

Latin grew out of early European languages.

Romance languages grew out of the vulgar Latin.

Vulgar Latin was spoken through the Roman Empire.

Romance languages were from France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Romania.

Catholic clergy used Latin as the official language also taught in schools.

Latin spread throughout Europe, mixed with indigenous languages.

Latin grew in English from the sixth century.

It grew more with the Norman conquest.

Latin grew with words in science, technology, medicine and law.

Latin law principles survive partly in a long list of legal Latin terms.

The Latin language has survived in one form or another for over 2,000 years.

English is often mistaken for a Romance language because of the huge
number of words in English with direct and indirect Latin origins.

It is said that 80% of scholarly English words are derived from Latin
in a large number of cases by way of French.

Ecclesiastical Latin remains the formal language of the Roman Catholic
Church which makes it the official language of the Vatican.

Half the words in English came from Latin.

Many words of Greek origin first adopted by the Romans with thousands of
French, Spanish and Italian words of Latin origin that have enriched English.


A not

not political ( apolitical)
not sexual (asexual)
not typical ( atypical)
not symmetrical (asymmetrical)
not moral ( amoral)

Ante before

someone or something that goes before ( antecedent)
a room before we go in to see the doctor ( ante-room)
medical check before birth ( ante-natal)
before noon ( ante meridien)
before the flood ( ante diluvian)
before the American civil war ( antebellum)

gun against aircraft ( anti-aircraft gun)
against corruption (anti-corruption)
explosive against people (anti-personnel mines)
feeling against ( antipathy)
against Christ ( anti-Christ)
against poison ( antidote)
drug against depression ( anti depressant)
against a climax (anti-climax)
E extra ex out of
send out (emit)
act of sending out ( emission)
door going out ( exit)
outside ( exterior, external)
push out violently ( explode)
push out as with toothpaste ( extrude)
drive out ( expel)
act of driving out ( expulsion)
give out praise ( extol)
out of normal ( exigency)
skin on outside ( exoderm)
outside the official role ( ex-officio)
moving out in large numbers ( exodus)
fill out in larger space ( expand)
give out ( expend)
to place out ( expose)
act of placing out ( exposure)
skeleton on outside ( exoskeleton)
carry out ( export)
press out ( express)
act of pressing out ( expression)
give out a strong view ( expound)
stretch out ( extend)
act of stretching out ( extension)
beauty outside of ordinary ( exquisite)
put out a flame ( extinguish)
put life out ( exterminate)
give excuses of situation ( extenuate)
draw out ( extract)
act of drawing out ( extraction)
outside of curriculum (extra curricular)
rejoice outside of normal ( exult)
act of rejoicing ( exultation)
Sym syn together
feeling together (sympathy)
combine together (synthesize)
combining together ( synthesis)
combine together (synthetic)
Homo the same or man
same sex preference (homosexual)
same throughout ( homogeneous)
same sound ( homophone)
Il im in ir  not 
not possible (impossible)
not mobile ( immobile)
not practicable ( impracticable)
not sincere ( insincere)
not active ( inactive)
not tolerant ( intolerant)
not regular ( irregular)
not religious (irreligious)
not reverent ( irreverent)
not legal ( illegal)
not legible ( illegible)
not logical ( illogical)
Intro  within
lead within ( introduce
act of leading within ( introduction)
look within (introspect)
turn within ( introvert)
Mal bad
bad air ( malaria, old belief)
badly formed ( malformed)
bad infection ( malignant)
badly contented (malcontent)
bad practice ( malpractice)
Pre before

a doctors letter to the chemist ( prescription)
time before written history ( pre-history)
something that runs before ( precursor)
see before ( preview)

Re – back or again
turn back ( return)
speak back ( reply)
turn a car back ( reverse)
turning back ( reversal)
to explain again ( reiterate)
see again ( review)

Trans across
bear across ( transfer, translate)
act across ( transact)
see across ( transparent)
across the nation (trans-national)
across the continent ( trans-continental)
across the sexes ( transsexual).
De down
break down ( destroy)
break an enemy ( defeat)
lay down soldiers for battle ( deploy)
lay down a solution ( determine)
break the value down ( debase)
climb down ( descend)
break down ( deteriorate)
Inter between

between nations ( international)
between continents ( inter-continental)
between races ( inter-racial)
between planets ( inter-planetary)

Per through

send through ( permit, permission)
spread through ( permeate)

Pro forward

throw forward (project)
lead forward ( produce)
pouring forward (profusion)
place forward (propose)
placing forward ( proposal)
for life (pro-life)
for democracy ( pro-democracy)
for execution ( pro-capital punishment)


ary ory place of

book of words  ( dictionary)
place of experiment ( laboratory)
act in preparation ( preparatory)
place of books ( library)
place of birds ( aviary)
place of bees ( apiary)
place of clergy ( seminary)
place of food ( refectory)
place of manufacture ( factory)
place for the dead ( mortuary)

ate - to make
make new and fresh ( rejuvenate)
make new ( create)
make alive ( animate)
make a hole ( excavate)
give a reason to act ( motivate)

ify  - to make

make great ( magnify)
make simple (simplify)
make intense ( intensify)
make a god ( deify)

ion the act of

act of injecting ( injection)
act of exploding ( explosion)
act of producing ( production)
act of describing ( description)
act of reducing ( reduction)
act of interpreting ( interpretation)
act of executing ( execution)

 ist, er, or – one who, that which

who types ( typist)
who makes herbal medicine ( herbalist)
is active ( activist)
who kills ( killer)
who fights ( fighter)
who drives ( driver)
who works ( worker)
who acts ( actor)
who sails ( sailor)
ship that destroys ( destroyer)
ship that cruises ( cruiser)
aircraft that bombs ( bomber)
device to detect ( detector)
machine to generate ( generator)
machine to distribute ( distributor)

ion, ation –the act of

of injecting ( injection)
of reacting ( reaction)
of acting ( action)
of rejecting ( rejection)
of starving ( starvation)
of translating ( translation)

Al - belonging to

to a nation ( national)
to medicine ( medicinal)
to teeth ( dental)
to the monarch ( regal)
to the fundaments ( fundamental)
to the mind ( mental)
to rent ( rental)
to the flesh ( carnal)
to prison  (penal)
to the end ( final)
to a person ( personal)
to crime ( criminal)


In the years up to the 1960s, Australian students were educated in word building through Latin and Greek roots. Then with the change in literacy policy it was scrapped. Hence the slow dumbing down of education.

The English language developed over centuries through intermingling of Saxon, Celt, Latin and French. Most words are based on Latin that came to England through the Roman and French invasions. French words were based on Latin. So English had language impact from two Latin sources.

There are many Latin based words that students can learn through vocabulary extension. Even PNG through conquest by Australia and Britain has long distant links with the Roman Empire. As an English teacher in PNG, I had introduced students to words based on Latin.

Ago (actus) I do

one who does (actor, agent)
doing  (act)
do something in response (react)
not doing (inactive)

Alta deep high tall

measures height in aircraft ( altimeter)
height above sea level ( altitude)
deep singing voice ( alto)

Annus a year

every year (annual)
every two years (biannual)
twice a year (biennial)
payment once a year (annuity)
pay after years of work (superannuation)

Anima breath

creature that breathes ( animal)
make appear living (animate)

Antigua old

old (ancient)
old furniture ( antique)
old times ( antiquity)

Aqua water

belonging to water (aquatic)
Roman water channel (aquaduct)
subterranean water canal (aquifer)
place to hold fish ( aquarium)
star sign ( aquarius)

Aquus equal

of the same value (equal)
same value ( equality)
same distance (equidistant)

Aster a star

person sent to space ( astronaut)
study of stars in the universe (astronomy)
study of a person’s future (astrology)
flower that looks like a star ( aster daisy)
space boy in cartoon ( astroboy)
star on paper ( asterisk)

Bona good

good faith (bona fides)
money for good work (bonus)
good participation (Bonaparte)

Caro flesh

of the flesh ( carnal)
eats flesh ( carnivore)
belonging to flesh eating (carnivorous)
display of human flesh (carnival)

Caput the head

the head person (captain)
headline in media (caption)
head city (capital)
cut off head (decapitate)
Bring to a head again (recapitulate)

Cavus a hole

hole in ground ( cave)
large hole in the ground ( cavern)
hole in tooth (cavity)
to make a hole in the ground ( excavate)
act of making a hole (excavation)

Cedo (cessus) I go

go forward (proceed)
act of going forward (procession)
go back (recede)
act of going back (recession)
a way to go forward (procedure)

Centum a hundred

a hundred years (centurion)
in charge of 100 men (centurion)
one hundred years (century)
100 years celebration (centenary)
hundredth of a dollar (cent)

Circum around

around a circle ( circumference)
around the world (circumnavigate)
around in a ring ( circle)
go around an issue ( circumspect)
cut around the skin of a penis (circumcise)
to avoid an issue ( circumvent)

Claudio ( clausus) I shut

shut out (exclude)
act of  shutting out ( exclusion)
shut in ( include)
act of shutting in ( inclusion)
shut to back of society (recluse)
shut together ( conclude)
act of shutting together ( conclusion)
closed walk in a hospital 0r school ( cloister)
small part of a sentence ( clause)

Copia plenty

horn of plenty ( cornucopia)
plenty (copious)

Cor the heart

full of heart (courage)
brave of heart (courageous)
of the heart (coronary)
Sacred Heart - French (Sacre Coeur)

Corpus the body

leads a body of soldiers (corporal)
dead body (corpse)
body of companies (corporation)
body of people (corps)
fat of body (corpulent)
body in the blood (corpuscle)
body of Christ (Corpus Christi)

Clarus clear

make clear ( clarify)
clear wine (claret)
clearness ( clarity)
clear statement ( declaration)

Crux a cross

a cross ( crucifix)
act of hanging on a cross ( crucifixion)
to hang on a cross (crucify)
of very great importance (crucial)

Decem ten

tenth month old calendar (December)
based on ten (decimal)
reduce by one tenth (decimate)
ten years ( decade)

Dens (dentis) a tooth

a specialist (dentist)
a false tooth (denture)
relating to teeth (dental)
meat of the tooth (dentine)

Duco (ductus) I lead

a leader (duke)
an Italian leader (Il Duce)
lead forward (produce)
act of leading forward (production)
a canal to lead fluid (duct)
a canal to lead the ova (oviduct)
a Roman stone canal (via-duct)
to lead down an idea (deduce)

Facio (factus) I make

a place that makes (factory)
to make by hand (manufacture)
make it happen (facilitate)

Fides faith

faithful dog (fido)
talk in faith (confide)
to have faith (confidence)
faithfulness in marriage (fidelity)
no faithfulness (infidelity)
having no faith (infidel)

Finis the end

to end (finish)
the end (final, finale)
without end ( infinite)
end of earth range in PNG (Finisterre)
end without end (infinity)
bring to an end (finalize)

Frango (fractus) I break

a piece (fragment)
breakable (fragile)
to break a rule (infringe)
a break in a bone (fracture)

Fundo (fundus) I pour

a pouring of money (fund)
to pour back (refund)
a device for pouring (funnel)
pouring forth (profound)

Ge the earth

study of rocks ( geology)
study of earth (geography)
relating to heat of earth ( geothermal)

Jacio (jectus) I throw

throw forward (project)
act of throwing forward (projection)
throw back (reject)
act of throwing back (rejection)
throw between (interject)
throw out (eject, ejaculate)
throw in (inject)
act of throwing in (injection)

Habeo I have

way of doing things (habit)
place to live ( habitation)

LIber free

make free ( liberate)
act of making free (liberation)
African nation of freed slaves ( Liberia)
Freedom to act (liberal)

Magnus great

make great ( magnify)
great ( magnificent)
great business person (magnate)
greatness ( magnitude)
great men of Biblical times ( Magi)

Manus the hand

by hand (manual)
made by hand (manuscript)
to handle (manage)
that which handles matters (management)
old-fashioned handcuffs (manacles)
to attack with hands (man-handle)

Mitto (Missis) I send

send to ( admit)
act of sending to (admission)
send back ( remit)
act of sending back ( remission)
send through ( permit)
act of sending through (permission)
send out ( emit)
act of sending out (emission)

Mort death

embarrass to death (mortify)
state of dead body (rigor mortis)
place to store bodies ( morgue, mortuary)

Moveo I move

able to move ( mobile)
unable to move ( immobile)
capacity to move ( mobility)
move back ( remove)

Multa many

many facets ( multi faceted)
many grade oil ( multi-grade oil)
many races ( multi-racial)

Nascor I am born

born in a country ( native)
new country born (nation)
birth of Jesus ( nativity)
happy christmas in Spain ( Felice navitat)

Novus new

something new ( novel)
new person ( novice)
new person to the clergy (novitiate)

Pars (partus) a part

a small part (particle)
part of a sentence (participle)
part of a structure (compartment)
part of an organization (department)
take part (participate)
one who takes part (partisan)

Parle I speak ( French latin)

place where people speak ( parliament)
Parlez- vous Francaise ( French)

Pendeo (pendus) I hang down

on a woman's neck (pendant)
on a flag pole (pennant)
on a clock (pendulum)
on a man (penis)
hang down mood (pensive)
a hanging desire (penchant)
to hang on (depend)
a hanger on (dependant)
not hanging on (independent)
hanging on between (interdependent)

Pono (posis) I place

a place ( position)
place down ( deposit, depose)
place back to rest ( repose)
place into ( impose)
place out ( expose)
place across ( transpose)
place together ( compose)

Post after later

after midday (post meridian PM)
after graduation (post graduate)
examination after death (post mortem)
place after ( postpone)

Primus first

the first ( primary)
first people (primitive)
first times on earth ( primeval)
action to make something work ( prime)
first numbers ( prime numbers)

Regis a crown

belonging to the crown (regal)
representing the crown (vice-regal)
decoration for royalty ( regalia)
record for the crown ( register)
act of recording ( registration)

Secto I cut

to cut away ( dissect)
cut into parts ( section)
creature cut into 3 parts ( insect)
cut the breast ( mastectomy)
cut the man’s tubes ( vasectomy)
to cut the body ( incise)
act of cutting body ( incision)

Schola school

place of learning ( school)
a person who learns ( scholar)
act of learning ( scholarship)
a learning process ( scholastic)

Scribo (scriptus) I write

an ancient writer (scribe)
baby writing (scribble)
writing from the Bible (Scripture)
write down (describe)
act of writing down (description)
write in (inscribe)
act of writing in (inscription)
document for chemist (prescription)

Specio (spectus) I see

something worth seeing (spectacle)
worth seeing (spectacular)
animal seen (species)
see into (inspect)
look down (despise)

Traho (tractus) I draw

farm machine (tractor)
draw out (extract)
draw together (contract)
broken limbs in hospital bed (traction)
draw down ( detract)

Terra the earth

relating to the earth (terrestrial)
middle of the earth (Mediterranean)
firm land (terra firma)
under the earth (subterranean)
bury a body (inter)

Video (vissus) I see

able to be seen (visible)
not able to be seen (invisible)
sight (vision)
to see again (revision)
type of TV set (video)

Volvo (volvus) I roll

to roll a Government (revolution)
a gun that rolls (revolver)
a car that rolls (Volvo)

Latin roots can enrich understanding of PNG and Australian students. But most younger teachers did not learn Latin and Greek roots at school. There are many more that will be posted here soon.

What is the Tok Pisin word from Latin? It is 'amamas' from the Latin 'ameas' meaning happy or love. Other countries in the Roman Empire took the root word too - French (amour) Italian (amo) English (amicable, amiable and amorous).


Baros weight

measures weight of air (barometer)
linking places of equal atmospheric pressure ( isobar)

Demos the people

government of the people (democracy)
belonging to the people (democratic)
action of the people ( demonstration)

Grapho I write

write in light (photograph)
write in sound ( phonograph)
a substance for writing ( graphite)

Metron a measure

measure of distance ( metre)
measures quantity ( meter)
measures weight of air (barometer)

Micros small

measures small objects (micrometer)
small creature in the body (microbe)
views small objects ( microscope)
small islands (micronesia)

Nesia an island

many islands (polynesia)
small islands (micronesia)

Pathos feeling

feeling (pathos)
feeling for someone ( sympathy)
no feeling for someone ( apathy)
feeling against someone ( antipathy)
deserving of pity ( pathetic)

Phos light

writing in light (photograph)
chemical that gives light (phosphorus)
make chemicals by light ( photosynthesis)
measure a winner by light (photo-finish)
able to take sweet photos (photogenic)

Phonos sound

sound from afar ( telephone)
old device for writing in sound (phonograph)
learning to read by sounds ( phonics)
study of sounds of speech ( phonetics)

Polis a city

body of people to look after a city (police)
belonging to a city ( metropolitan)
a city (metropolis)
cultural variety in a city ( cosmopolitan)
affairs of a city ( politics)

Therme heat

measures heat (thermometer)
relating to heat ( thermal)

Tele afar

hears from afar ( telephone)
sees from afar (television)
gets messages from afar (telepathy)
prints from afar ( teleprinter)
communicates from afar (telecommunication)

Zoon an animal

study of animals ( zoology)
place for animals ( zoo, zoological garden)
animal living in spores (sporozoite)

Logos a study

study of animals ( zoology)
study of life ( biology)
study of personal stars ( astrology)
study of tissues ( pathology)
study of parasites ( parasitology)

Skopeo I view

see from afar ( telescope)
seeing a view (scope)
see small objects ( microscope)


gathering of lecturers working ( lego lectus - I gather college)
a gathering of  ideas to make a talk ( lecture)
accusations gathered together ( allegations)
make accusations (allege)
to prepare a law ( legis – law legislate)
a place of law making ( legislature)
according to law ( legal)
land that rises ( gradior I rise gradient)
rising of students at school ( grades)
make something go down ( degrade)
rise from study ( graduate)
rising ceremony at school ( graduation)
a slow rising ( gradual)
climb up ( scando I climb,  ascend)
climb down (descend)
a public issue that rises ( scandal)
rising of Jesus ( ascension)
to press  (premo pressus I press  pressure)
press from above ( supreme)
press out ( express)
press into a person’s admiration (impress)
act of pressing admiration ( impression)
press down ( depress)
act of pressing down (depression)
press together (compress)
act of pressing together ( compression)
press back ( repress)
act of pressing back ( repression)
in good faith ( bona good, bona fides)
money given for good work ( bonus)
a wonderful discovery ( bonanza)
a small house ( Casa a house – casa)
my house is your house ( Spanish- Mi casa su casa)
large house ( castle)
having faith ( Fides faith, fidelity)
talk in faith ( confidential)
faithfulness in keeping secret ( confidentiality)
faithful dog ( Fido)
not having faith ( infidelity)
a person not having faith ( infidel)
a place with houses  (villa - a house villa, village)
people who live in a place with houses  ( villagers)
a person skilled at languages (lingua –language - linguist)
language of a  nation (lingua franca)
belonging to the sea (mare the sea, marine, maritime)
middle of the earth sea (terra the earth, mediterranean)
a large group of stars ( stella – a star , constellation)
star of the Sea (Catholic school name) ( Stella Maris)
state of death in a body ( mortis death – rigor mortis)
place where bodies are kept ( mortuary)
a person born in a country ( nascor I am born – native)
a country becoming a state (nation)
between nations ( international)
across a nation (transnational)
hanging from a girl’s neck ( pendeo I hang – pendant)
to hang (suspend)
to carry across ( porto – portus - I carry transport)
to send across ( mitto I send, transmit)
go forward (cedo cessus –I go, proceed)
go outside limits (exceed)
a group of people going forward (procession)
go between ( intercede)
driving of our blood (pello pulsus I drive pulse)
drive forward (propel)
drive back (repel)
blade that drives an aircraft ( propeller)
act of driving back (repulsion)
driving feeling (impulse)
able to be carried (porto I carry portable)
carry out the country  (export)
carry into the country ( import)
carry across the country (transport)
carry down and out of the country (deport)
able to be carried (portable)
looks after teeth (dens dentis a tooth, dentist)
false teeth ( dentures)
meat inside a tooth ( dentine)
 glasses we wear (specio spectus I see, spectacles)
A variety of animal or plant ( species)
Really worth seeing ( special, spectacular)
Look into and examine (inspect)
Look back to with honour (respect)
A ghost that we see ( spectre)
ability to see ( video vissus I see vision)
able to be seen ( visible)
not able to be seen ( invisible)
box that shows pictures from afar (tele afar,   television)
device that enables us to speak afar (telephone)
device that enables us to see afar (telescope)
device that enables us to write afar. (telegraph, teleprinter)
see again during study ( revise)
act of seeing again (revision)
where two parts join or meet (jungo I join, junction)
sickness that joins eye lids together (conjunctivitis)
wall that divides a room into parts (partus –a part, partition)
small rooms joined together (compartments)
parts of an organization (departments)
make something (facio I make manufacture)
place where products are made ( factory)
Sacred Heart (French) (cor the heart  Sacre Coeur)
strong heart ( courage)
having strong heart (courageous)
heart of the fruit in a bottle (cordial)
dead body ( corpus the body corpse)
body of companies ( corporation)
body of Christ ( Catholic school) ( Corpus Christi)
being fat in body (corpulent)
a body of soldiers ( corps)
in charge of a group of soldiers (corporal)
make a company become a legal body (incorporate)
hundredth of a dollar (centum a hundred, cent)
hundred years ( century)
hundred year celebration (centenary)
in charge of a hundred Roman soldiers (centurion)
arithmetic system based on ten ( decem – ten decimal)
tenth month in ancient Rome ( December)
fall of ten years (decade)
reduce by one tenth ( decimate)
pouring of money (fundo fundus I pour fund)
money poured back to the buyer ( refund)
device for pouring petrol ( funnel)
pouring forth of flowers ( profusion)
draw out (traho tractus I draw, extract)
act of drawing out ( extraction)
draw together ( contract)
broken body drawn on a hospital bed ( traction)
send across ( transmit)
send out ( emit)
act of sending out ( emission)
leads an orchestra ( duco – ductus I lead, conductor)
an English leader ( Duke)
an Italian leader ( Duce)
lead forward ( produce)
lead backwards (reduce)
made by hand (manus the hand manufacture)
written by hand ( scribo scriptus I write manuscript)
leads water by canal ( duco ductus I lead aquaduct, viaduct)
leads the ova in a woman’s body ( oviduct)
greatness ( magnus great magnificent)
a great business person ( magnate)
make great (magnify)
make new again ( Novus new, renovate)
person who is new ( novice)
new idea ( novel)
make peaceful ( pax peace pacify)
make into a god ( deus a god deify)
make right ( regis right rectify)
a child’s writing ( scribo scriptus I write scribble)
writings from the Bible ( Scripture)
write down ( describe)
act of writing down ( description)
to hang (depend, suspend)
one who hangs ( dependant)
not hanging ( independent)
turn back ( verto –vertus I turn revert)
drive back ( pello pulsus I drive repel, repulse)
a car that rolls smoothly ( volvo I roll Volvo)
turning back ( revolve)
rolling a country back by war ( revolution)
gun with a chamber that rolls ( revolver)
freedom ( liber free, liberty)
african country of freed slaves ( Liberia)
make free ( liberate)
act of making free ( liberation)
a friendly person (amica friendly amicable, amiable)
in early times ( antigua early, antiquity)
old quality furniture (antiques)


    Group 1

a.      He went for an ..................... against measles ( jacio jectus).
b.      The event had to be.............. because of rain (pono posis)
c.       There is much tooth ............. because of too much sugar (cado)
d.      Because of the low morality, society became ..............(cado)
e.      It was produced in a ...............located across the town (facio)
f.        The dentist had to ..................the decayed tooth (traho)
g.      My children .................on me ( pendeo)
h.      The nation gained 1975 ( pendeo)
i.        The company joined a ..................of companies ( corpus)
j.        The house was built at the .......of the two rivers ( jungo)

depend, postponed, decay, injection,  factory, corporation, decadent,
junction, extracted.

Group 2

a.       He fired a the shadow in the room ( volvo)
b.       The police were able to ....................the plot (pono posis)
c.       They were told to ................down the road ( cedo)
d.      They rowed to the shore as the tide ..................(cedo)
e.      The ...................of the river was very strong ( curro)
f.        You must go to the if your tooth gives pain (dens)
g.      The nurse put a his mouth ( therme)
h.      The children went to see the animals at the..........(zoon)
i.        He travelled to ...................that was located near Japan ( nesia)
j.        He broke the law as his action was not ..............(legis)

Expose, dental, zoo, legal, thermometer, revolver, proceed, receded,
current,   thermometer.

    Group 3

a.      Did you get enter the building (mitto)?
b.      In New Zealand is an area of ......................springs ( therme)
c.       The application was it was not suitable ( jacio jectus)
d.      The machine .....................a loud sound ( mitto)
e.      The ..................had several expatriate lecturers ( lego)
f.        The man went to see an ancient ...........who wrote letters (scribo)
g.       They ..................a large hole in the ground (cavus)
h.      The governor ............. a heavy burden on the people (pono)
i.        She ...................a lovely song (pono posis)
j.        He .....................a large amount of money in the bank (pono posis)

imposed, deposited, rejected, college, excavated, emitted, thermal, 
scribe, composed,  permit,  

Group 4

a.      He did not ....................where the money was hidden ( dico)
b.      We  celebrated the hundred year ..................( centum)
c.       The Roman legion was ..................for cowardice ( decem)
d.      The message was radio ( mitto)
e.      They had to obtain a build the fence ( mitto)
f.        The report was ..................into English ( fero latus )
g.      The men ......................down the road ( cedo)
h.      The tooth started to ........................ ( cado)
i.        The horses were sent to the race .............(curro)
j.        Go to the for tooth treatment ( dens)

translated, dental, transmitted, proceeded, course, indicate, 
decimated, decay, permit, centenary.

Group 5

a.      He was posted to a ship of the .....................element ( mare)
b.      He was an ..................who was sent to the moon (aster)
c.       A hole in the ground ( cavus)
d.      Middle of the earth sea .....................( terra)
e.      It was a ................written by hand in early times ( manus scribo)
f.        The river .....................was very strong ( curro)
g.       Roman peace ..................( pax)
h.       It was pressed together ...................( premo pressus)
i.        The enemy was driven back ..............................(pello)
j.         He was the ..........................of the orchestra ( duco)

Current, maritime, cave, Pax Romana, Mediterranean, repelled, astronaut,
manuscript, conductor, compressed.

    Group 6

a.        The tools were led forward .......................(duco)
b.        He was a ........................of the English court ( duco)
c.         The cargo was container ( porto)
d.        The man was ...................from the country (porto)
e.        The news was the soldier ( porto)
f.          Romans built a carry water ( duco)
g.        The mountain was ....................from far away ( video)
h.        He ............  his school work again ( video)
i.        It was a new ..................... of insect (specio)
j.        He checked my temperature with a ...................(therme, metron)

visible, produced, deported, viaduct/aqueduct, revised, Duke, 
species, thermometer, transported.

Group 7

a.      He spoke to the leader by ........................ (phonos, tele)
b.      The criminal was arrested by .......................(polis)
c.       We must not speed in the ........................area ( polis)
d.      We studied learn about animals ( zoon)
e.      In our study of ................we learned about rocks (ge)
f.        We learned about the body in.......................(physio)
g.      Plants live by ............................(phos)
h.      We kept a file of .........................(phos, grapho)
i.        We had.........................for her as she was very sick (pathos)
j.        I had ...................for him as I had the same problem (pathos)

physiology, metropolitan, empathy, zoology, police, telephone, 
geology, photosynthesis, sympathy, photographs.

Group 8

a.      He cut the line into two ( secto)
b.      The animal was ..................... with a knife ( secto)
c.       The boy was another school ( fero)
d.      The ........................took place with much bloodshed ( volvo)
e.       The woman ....................her breast milk out ( premo, pressus)
f.        The lever was stop the engine (premo)
g.       He ..................the girl with his singing ( premo, pressus)
h.      Produce was Australia ( porto)
i.        Electronic equipment was .................from Australia ( porto)
j.        There was a small................found that held drugs ( pars)

exported,  transferred, compartment, expressed, impressed, bisected,
revolution, dissected, depressed, imported.

Group 9

a.      There is a verse in ........................about love of God ( scribo)
b.       Read the ........................on the grave ( scribo)
c.       They ran through the ................door to the road outside ( ex )
d.       There was a ..................flag flying from the window ( pendeo)
e.       PNG became 1975 ( pendeo)
f.        The car was avoid the road block ( verto)
g.      Get a ..................from the doctor before going to the chemist (scribo)
h.      He did not want to the race (pars, partus)
i.        They tried to .................the problem to make people angry ( magnus)
j.        He was a mining ..................who was very rich ( magnus)

participate,  exit, independent, prescription, magnify, reversed, 
magnate, Scripture, pennant, inscription.

Group 10

a.      There were many red blood ........................ ( corpus)
b.       In Latin, the body of Christ is ...........................(corpus)
c.       In French, Sacred Heart is ...................(coeur)
d.      His sickness ....................many times ( curro)
e.      He was taught running writing ( curro)
f.        He did not do good work as he was a ...............( novus)
g.      American slaves lived in a new African colony ( liber)
h.      The Jews were ....................from the prison camps ( liber)
i.        They shouted they wanted .....................( liber)
j.        After marine studies, we were given............studies ( terra)

recurred,  corpuscles, liberated, Corpus Christie, Novice, terrestrial,
Liberty, Sacre Coeur, cursive, Liberia

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