Influenced by the Etruscan language and using the Greek alphabet as a basis, it took form as what is recognizable as Latin in the Italian Peninsula. Modern Romance languages are continuations of dialectal forms (vulgar Latin) of the language. Additionally many students, scholars, and some members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and it is still taught in some primary, secondary and post-secondary educational institutions around the world.
The consequent Medieval Latin, influenced by various Germanic and proto-Romance languages until expurgated by Renaissance scholars, was used as the language of international communication, scholarship, and science until well into the 18th century, when it began to be supplanted by vernaculars.
Otherwise, the locative function ("place where") has merged with the ablative. The vocative, a case of direct address, is marked by an ending only in words of the second declension. Otherwise, the vocative has merged with the nominative, except that the particle O typically precedes any vocative, marked or not.
Although Classical Latin has demonstrative pronouns indicating different degrees of proximity ("this one here", "that one there"), it does not have articles. Later Romance language articles developed from the demonstrative pronouns, e.g. le and la (French) from ille and illa, and su and sa (Sardinian) from ipse and ipsa.
These were dubbed "inkhorn terms", as if they had spilled from a pot of ink. Many of these words were used once by the author and then forgotten. Some useful ones, though, survived, such as 'imbibe' and 'extrapolate'. Many of the most common polysyllabic English words are of Latin origin, through the medium of Old French.
Roman medicine, recorded in the works of such physicians as Galen, established that today's medical terminology would be primarily derived from Latin and Greek words, the Greek being filtered through the Latin. Roman engineering had the same effect on scientific terminology as a whole. Latin law principles have survived partly in a long list of legal Latin terms.
An Introduction to a Brief History of the Latin Language
Latin’s life stretches beyond pre-history, its origins forever lost. What we do know about Latin survives to use in a sporadic collection of writings that only hint at the language’s rich history.
The ebb and tide of some factions’ strength made lasting impressions on the peninsula and influenced the beginnings of Roman history to the extent that Latin almost surely would have perished had certain powers not won out over their rivals.
History of the Latin Language
Latin was a lingua franca, the learned language for scientific and political affairs, for more than a thousand years, being eventually replaced by French in the 18th century and English in the late 19th. Ecclesiastical Latin remains the formal language of the Roman Catholic Church to this day, which makes it the official national language of the Vatican. The Church used Latin as its primary liturgical language until the Second Vatican Council in the 1960s. Latin is also still used (drawing heavily on Greek roots) to furnish the names used in the scientific classification of living things.
Latin and English
What have we learned from the texts above?
Latin grew out of early European languages.
Romance languages grew out of the vulgar Latin.
Vulgar Latin was spoken through the Roman Empire.
Romance languages were from France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Romania.
Catholic clergy used Latin as the official language also taught in schools.
Latin spread throughout Europe, mixed with indigenous languages.
Latin grew in English from the sixth century.
It grew more with the Norman conquest.
Latin grew with words in science, technology, medicine and law.
Latin law principles survive partly in a long list of legal Latin terms.
number of words in English with direct and indirect Latin origins.
It is said that 80% of scholarly English words are derived from Latin
in a large number of cases by way of French.
Ecclesiastical Latin remains the formal language of the Roman Catholic
Church which makes it the official language of the Vatican.
Half the words in English came from Latin.
Many words of Greek origin first adopted by the Romans with thousands of
French, Spanish and Italian words of Latin origin that have enriched English.
against corruption (anti-corruption)
explosive against people (anti-personnel mines)
feeling against ( antipathy)
against Christ ( anti-Christ)
against poison ( antidote)
drug against depression ( anti depressant)
against a climax (anti-climax)
act of sending out ( emission)
door going out ( exit)
outside ( exterior, external)
push out violently ( explode)
push out as with toothpaste ( extrude)
drive out ( expel)
act of driving out ( expulsion)
give out praise ( extol)
out of normal ( exigency)
skin on outside ( exoderm)
outside the official role ( ex-officio)
moving out in large numbers ( exodus)
fill out in larger space ( expand)
give out ( expend)
to place out ( expose)
act of placing out ( exposure)
skeleton on outside ( exoskeleton)
carry out ( export)
press out ( express)
act of pressing out ( expression)
give out a strong view ( expound)
stretch out ( extend)
act of stretching out ( extension)
beauty outside of ordinary ( exquisite)
put out a flame ( extinguish)
put life out ( exterminate)
give excuses of situation ( extenuate)
draw out ( extract)
act of drawing out ( extraction)
outside of curriculum (extra curricular)
rejoice outside of normal ( exult)
act of rejoicing ( exultation)
combine together (synthesize)
combining together ( synthesis)
combine together (synthetic)
same throughout ( homogeneous)
same sound ( homophone)
not mobile ( immobile)
not practicable ( impracticable)
not sincere ( insincere)
not active ( inactive)
not tolerant ( intolerant)
not regular ( irregular)
not religious (irreligious)
not reverent ( irreverent)
not legal ( illegal)
not legible ( illegible)
not logical ( illogical)
act of leading within ( introduction)
look within (introspect)
turn within ( introvert)
badly formed ( malformed)
bad infection ( malignant)
badly contented (malcontent)
bad practice ( malpractice)
time before written history ( pre-history)
speak back ( reply)
turn a car back ( reverse)
turning back ( reversal)
to explain again ( reiterate)
see again ( review)
act across ( transact)
see across ( transparent)
across the nation (trans-national)
across the continent ( trans-continental)
across the sexes ( transsexual).
break an enemy ( defeat)
lay down soldiers for battle ( deploy)
lay down a solution ( determine)
break the value down ( debase)
climb down ( descend)
break down ( deteriorate)
between continents ( inter-continental)
spread through ( permeate)
The English language developed over centuries through intermingling of Saxon, Celt, Latin and French. Most words are based on Latin that came to England through the Roman and French invasions. French words were based on Latin. So English had language impact from two Latin sources.
There are many Latin based words that students can learn through vocabulary extension. Even PNG through conquest by Australia and Britain has long distant links with the Roman Empire. As an English teacher in PNG, I had introduced students to words based on Latin.
Ago (actus) I do
one who does (actor, agent)
do something in response (react)
not doing (inactive)
every year (annual)
every two years (biannual)
twice a year (biennial)
payment once a year (annuity)
pay after years of work (superannuation)
Caput the head
the head person (captain)
headline in media (caption)
head city (capital)
cut off head (decapitate)
go forward (proceed)
act of going forward (procession)
go back (recede)
act of going back (recession)
a way to go forward (procedure)
a hundred years (centurion)
in charge of 100 men (centurion)
one hundred years (century)
100 years celebration (centenary)
hundredth of a dollar (cent)
full of heart (courage)
brave of heart (courageous)
of the heart (coronary)
Sacred Heart - French (Sacre Coeur)
Corpus the body
leads a body of soldiers (corporal)
dead body (corpse)
body of companies (corporation)
body of people (corps)
fat of body (corpulent)
body in the blood (corpuscle)
body of Christ (Corpus Christi)
tenth month old calendar (December)
based on ten (decimal)
reduce by one tenth (decimate)
Dens (dentis) a tooth
a specialist (dentist)
a false tooth (denture)
relating to teeth (dental)
meat of the tooth (dentine)
Duco (ductus) I lead
a leader (duke)
an Italian leader (Il Duce)
lead forward (produce)
act of leading forward (production)
a canal to lead fluid (duct)
a canal to lead the ova (oviduct)
a Roman stone canal (via-duct)
to lead down an idea (deduce)
Facio (factus) I make
a place that makes (factory)
to make by hand (manufacture)
make it happen (facilitate)
faithful dog (fido)
talk in faith (confide)
to have faith (confidence)
faithfulness in marriage (fidelity)
no faithfulness (infidelity)
having no faith (infidel)
Finis the end
to end (finish)
the end (final, finale)
a piece (fragment)
to break a rule (infringe)
a break in a bone (fracture)
a pouring of money (fund)
to pour back (refund)
a device for pouring (funnel)
pouring forth (profound)
Jacio (jectus) I throw
throw forward (project)
act of throwing forward (projection)
throw back (reject)
act of throwing back (rejection)
throw between (interject)
throw out (eject, ejaculate)
throw in (inject)
act of throwing in (injection)
by hand (manual)
made by hand (manuscript)
to handle (manage)
that which handles matters (management)
old-fashioned handcuffs (manacles)
to attack with hands (man-handle)
Pars (partus) a part
a small part (particle)
part of a sentence (participle)
part of a structure (compartment)
part of an organization (department)
take part (participate)
one who takes part (partisan)
Parlez- vous Francaise ( French)
Pendeo (pendus) I hang down
on a woman's neck (pendant)
on a flag pole (pennant)
on a clock (pendulum)
on a man (penis)
hang down mood (pensive)
a hanging desire (penchant)
to hang on (depend)
a hanger on (dependant)
not hanging on (independent)
hanging on between (interdependent)
Scribo (scriptus) I write
an ancient writer (scribe)
baby writing (scribble)
writing from the Bible (Scripture)
write down (describe)
act of writing down (description)
write in (inscribe)
act of writing in (inscription)
document for chemist (prescription)
Specio (spectus) I see
something worth seeing (spectacle)
worth seeing (spectacular)
animal seen (species)
see into (inspect)
look down (despise)
Terra the earth
relating to the earth (terrestrial)
middle of the earth (Mediterranean)
firm land (terra firma)
under the earth (subterranean)
bury a body (inter)
Video (vissus) I see
able to be seen (visible)
not able to be seen (invisible)
to see again (revision)
type of TV set (video)
Volvo (volvus) I roll
to roll a Government (revolution)
a gun that rolls (revolver)
a car that rolls (Volvo)
Latin roots can enrich understanding of PNG and Australian students. But most younger teachers did not learn Latin and Greek roots at school. There are many more that will be posted here soon.
What is the Tok Pisin word from Latin? It is 'amamas' from the Latin 'ameas' meaning happy or love. Other countries in the Roman Empire took the root word too - French (amour) Italian (amo) English (amicable, amiable and amorous).
depend, postponed, decay, injection, factory, corporation, decadent,
scribe, composed, permit,
decimated, decay, permit, centenary.
species, thermometer, transported.
geology, photosynthesis, sympathy, photographs.
participate, exit, independent, prescription, magnify, reversed,