Tuesday, 10 February 2015



Norman Sike Institute
Mt Hagen

Psychology is the study of the mind. But it has to be addressed in relation to health, nutrition, absence of harmful drugs, sociology of family and physiology of the body.

This basic course will trace the evolution of psychology from the Dark Ages to the present time. It will show the horrors of early practice among people we would call witchdoctors today.

We need humility in the study of psychology as so much is hidden away from us in the recesses of our brains. So often the so-called experts in the past have been wrong in dealing with people’s minds. 

There have been people murdered by others who have an ideological agenda that some people have no right to live while others have the right to prosper and take their families to a good life.

This book will be the foundation of the study in psychology at the Norman Sike Institute in Mt Hagen. The approach will be balanced. History will be explained with an understanding that the past should not be repeated.

Modern developments will be explained.

Bruce Copeland BA BEdSt

Introduction to psychology

course time table

Week 1           World of the Mind
Week 2         Humans and animals
Week 3         Nature or nurture?
Week 4          Executing the convicted
Week 5            Test
Week 6            Treatment of the mentally ill
Week 7             Modern treatment begins
Week 8            Onset of dementia
Week 9          Growth of children
Week 10           Parasites, bacteria and viruses
Week 11              Test
Week 12           Living a positive lifestyle
Week 13           Sorcery killing in Papua New Guinea
Week 14           Psychology in the Modern World
Week 15           Revision
Week 16           Revision
Week 17            Final exam

Chapter 1  world of the mind

This book has been written to support a course in psychology at the Norman Sike Institute in Mt Hagen, Papua New Guinea. It replaces a course intended for Diploma students that sets out the theory of psychology in abstract words and even more abstract concepts that may trouble both tutors and students.

There is no recognition that the study of psychology has had an evil past of so-called experts in the human mind casting denunciations on innocent people and putting them to death.

We have to go forward in the study of psychology ready to learn the lessons of the past. Psychology as a discipline has had a history of only 200 years but the atrocities by experts of the mind go back even further.

Religious faith is an important part of the lives of the human race. We learn to love and respect our Creator and the people and other creatures of the earth. We read our books of Scripture and learn of Satan, the prime force of evil in the world

But religious faith has been used in past millennia to murder those people not deemed to be acceptable to God. In the Middle Ages, the Catholic faith was moving across Europe, supported by the Roman Empire.

In villages, there were women who performed the duties of doctors. They delivered babies and prescribed herbs to be used to cure the sick. But these women were seen by the church hierarchy to be enemies of God and competitors of the Church. They were called witches and burned at the stake.

The killing of women made life easier for the priests who became the primary carers in the villages. Over hundreds of years, there were hundreds of thousands of innocent women killed in the name of God.

Exorcism became a key to medical cure, particularly when the village was faced with sickness that they could not cure. It was attributed to sorcery and blamed on poor innocent witches. Evil spirits and demons were key forces to be removed from the bodies of sick people.

The evil time of the world of psychology came in the 1800s after the work of Sigmund Freud who laid the foundation of modern psychology and psychiatry.

It was believed that the human brain was divided into segments with specific functions. This view has been improved and refined in modern medicine but in the early days, the approach led to massive abuses.

The belief developed that we can predict the behaviour of human beings by study of the bumps on the skull. It was known as phrenology.

A concert pianist would have a special bump that allowed the appreciation of beautiful music. A murderer had another bump and a lowering of the frontal lobes of the skull. This person obviously had animal instincts, a capacity for brutal violence and a lack of mercy.

If we visit the Old Melbourne gaol in Australia, we have a surprise if we visit the section where the convicted men and women were hanged. We find in one room the death masks of all those hanged. Dozens of dead men and women stare at us with waxen sightless eyes.

The belief was that these death masks could be studied by the medical profession to determine the effects of the bumps and underlying brain on medical behaviour. These masks are now no more than a gruesome reminder of our past

This medical strategy did not die out until the last century when Adolf Hitler gave his doctors the freedom to study the human brain in the Nazi death camps. Some such doctors were middle aged men born in the 1800s and very much part of the study of phrenology.

They were influenced too by the study of human fossils of the Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon men and women. The studies of Charles Darwin had brought us the theory of evolution.

We were all descended from pond water in the warm waters of the world. We came to the human race through evolution of monkeys and apes.

Let this book not raise fury among religious groups that we support evolution. There is so much that we still do not know. There is a massive guiding hand in the creation of every creature and plant on the planet.

Our body has the same basic structure of lions, frogs and cockroaches. This is a big master plan operating in creation.

But from the study of ancient man we have long learned of the thick, stocky Neanderthals with flat foreheads.

Then hundreds of thousands of years later there emerged Cro-Magnon men and women with tall bodies, high foreheads and obvious high intelligence to have wiped out the Neanderthals. Some modern belief is that they interbred with them.

But the Nazis took this one step further and integrated the ideas into their fascist ideology. The Germans were Aryan, the race of people from the north of Europe and Scandinavia who were tall and blond with blue eyes.

They lived in northern Germany with their full-breasted mate. They were descendants of the Cro-Magnon man. The Third Reich was to be the home for eternity of the Aryan race.

In Eastern Europe lived the Slavs in such countries as Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. Many were said to be short and strong with low foreheads and low intelligence.

They were obviously descendants of the Neanderthals and contaminating the racial purity of the Aryan race. Slavs including the Gypsies were to die in thousands in the gas chambers of Europe.

The Nazis introduced the assessment of the skull called the Cephalic Index. The victim was measured by the angle between the jaw line and the forehead. Any measurement below 65 degrees made the person a Neanderthal animal with low instincts destined for death in the gas chambers.

So there have been times of deep shame in the modern history of the world. We have to learn from mistakes. There is no racial purity on the planet. All of us have genes from across the globe going back through our ancestors over thousands of years.

I recall a TV series about the killings of the Jews at Auschwitz. It was interesting to watch the interviews of the old men who were Gestapo officers and guards.

The officers had high foreheads while the guards had sloping foreheads. There was a self fulfilling prophesy there somewhere.

I recall reading about all this as a young man and found myself looking at my reflection in the mirror. Was I Cro-Magnon or Neanderthal? I think I was a little of both.

Modern study of DNA may bring an answer. Scientists are beginning to trace the movement of people from their early starting point in Africa up to Europe, across to China and down the coast of North America to South America and the Pacific Islands

Chapter 2   HUMANS and animals

The human race really has not understood the human being and the working of people in relation to the rest of living creatures. We know that the human race is at the top of the food chain and superior to lions, sharks, dogs, cats and snakes.

We have been told in Scripture that we have dominion over the birds and beasts. That has been taken to mean that we can kill all creatures of the earth which are our possessions. All trees are to be cut down.  All fish are to be caught and let to die.

We recall the early days of America when the railways traversed the Wild West and crossed the prairies covered with herds of buffalo.

It was a great pastime for passengers to open train windows and shoot buffalo with their rifles, leaving them to die and rot in the wilderness.

Great wild hunters would go to Africa to shoot lions, tigers and elephants so that a photo could be taken of the hunter standing with his rifle on his knee and foot on the neck of the dead animal. Its carcass was then left to rot.

We believe that only the human race has souls. No other creature has a soul. In recent years, researchers have told us that other animals have feeling and memory.

Elephants can communicate and grieve over dead family members. Dolphins will support their young as they grow in the seas of the world. They have language that we struggle to understand.

Monkeys have language in the troops of the Serengeti plain of Africa. They can advise of food and the arrival of the deadly eagle ready to snatch up a hapless monkey in its talons.

Chapter 3         NATURE OR NURTURE?

The scientific world has a new tool to be used to identify individuals and the clans from which they arose. In the 1950s scientists Watson and Crick gave us the deoxyribonucleic acid chain, commonly known as DNA.

It has been used to identify human remains from aircraft crashes, murders and rapes. It can indentify skeletons of other creatures. It is a long term print by which we are identified.

The question has long been asked of what is the key factor in our growth – nutrition, exercise, clean water and love or the influence of DNA? Are we governed by nurture or natural growth.

Many experiments have been carried out on identical twins. Scientists have found such twins who were separated at birth and lived not knowing of the existence of the other in homes of other people.

It has happened too often to be a coincidence that twins have been brought together after many years and interviewed. Both may be teachers with a degree in Arts, specializing in English. Both play the guitar and love classical music.

Perhaps we have all heard of legends about twins separated but suffered the same illnesses, felt pain and died together a long distance apart, all at the same time.

The modern era has brought another issue to the world. Are gay, lesbian and transvestite men and women born that way or brought up with another sexuality?

We have all met men and women who appear to belong to the other sex. A young man may be a woman and yearning to be so.

A young woman may want to be a man. There are medical procedures that can bring about the change.

The question arises as to whether gay men and women are born that way. It may be that some are the way they are born. The young man prefers to stay at home with the women and carry out women’s work

The young woman wants to be out with the boys. It may be that they are subject to nature. In settling into a gender identity, they may also be subject to nurture.

But that may change as she grows and moves away from the companionship of her brothers and their friends. She has grown out of being a tom boy.

But there is another possibility too. Take young Thomas Ponsonby the 6 year old son of Lord and Lady Algernon Ponsonby, sent to a British boarding school while the parents are on their cattle station in Northern Australia. He sees them on term breaks.

He sleeps in a dormitory with the other boys but soon finds himself in bed with his best chum. They have sex which young Algernon finds very pleasurable. Over a 10 year period, Algernon has sex only with school chums with no contact with girls.

Algernon is gay. He has been nurtured into his sexuality. He will leave school at Grade 12 with his chums and all will seek to study at Cambridge or Oxford. Two will graduate to join the military. Algernon will find a place in the Foreign Office and his chum will be a clergyman.

There was a famous case in the 1950s in Britain of 4 young gay men who became spies for the USSR. There were Philby, Maclean and Blount.

So we can say that young people can be gay, lesbian or transvestite by Nature or Nurture.

CHAPTER 4  executing the convicted

For centuries, criminals have been executed for their crimes. The practice continues in many countries including United States, China, Japan, Malaysia and Indonesia.

But many countries now oppose capital punishment as it is seen as a cruel punishment that has no effect on reducing the crime rate.

There is cruelty in such punishment as many convicted criminals may be on death row for a decade before execution takes place. They are being punished twice.

There has been an ongoing concern about the impending execution of Australian drug smugglers in Indonesia. It is sad to read the letter from one of the prisoners to the Indonesia president.

He addressed him respectfully calling him Bapak and asks to be spared as he has changed to become a good man who helps in the art and education classes and regrets his crime of smuggling heroin.

Sadly there is no forgiveness for those who are convicted and who become changed people as we all do in our lives. The convicted prisoners are not allowed to grow as human beings.

There have been men and women who have served a sentence on death row in a US prison and become changed. Prison has changed their spirituality. Some are Christian and seeking forgiveness. But they are not forgiven and are duly executed at the end of 15 years.

The psychology of such executions is sad. People can change. Those who believe there is a soul will be appalled that a good person is being put to death. The state should have the capacity for forgiveness.

The families of the deceased will argue that their dead loved one shot by the convicted man, had no chance to change his life. The young girl raped and murdered had no chance to live.

We are finding from newspaper reports that the age of DNA is finding that men and women gaoled 20 years ago are innocent as their DNA did not match the samples taken at the scene of the crime.

There will be executed men and women found to be innocent. But it is then too late. The state has already taken their lives.

We come back to the Nature-Nurture argument. Are murderers born that way? Some are and have become serial murderers or rapists. Others have had an appalling history of violence, abuse, drug taking and rape. Should those nurtured badly be put to death?

Reports show that most of the inmates of US and Australian prisons are negro or aboriginal. Many may surely have been nurtured badly as children.

Chapter 5  –  Treatment of the mentally ill

There has been extreme cruelty to the mentally ill in asylums or mental hospitals of centuries past. The sick were treated like wild dogs. They were locked into a large cell often in chains. There was no bath facilities and the cell stank of faeces.

There was no medical treatment as the doctors had no idea of what to do. The mental hospitals had visitors hours which allowed people to come and view the sick chained to the wall all for a Sunday afternoon entertainment.

If the sick were near the iron barred door, the visitor could poke the unfortunate person with a high fashioned walking stick to show his girl friend how a mad person might growl or howl like a dog.

There was no treatment and no release. Inmates were in the mental hospital until death. Young people would be put into the cell and be subject to sexual violence and abuse.

The sick person was unable to live a normal life. Mental disorders affected most aspects of the person’s life. They had no physical functioning and unable to control urine and faeces.

Their behaviour and emotions were confused and uncontrolled. They had no interpersonal relationships, sexuality and ability to work or play. The doctors had no idea of how to treat such symptoms and no facilities in which to work.

Chapter 7 - Modern treatment begins

As the nineteenth century advanced, the physicians began to specialize in the treatment of the mentally ill. They practised moral treatment to quieten the mental turmoil and restoring the capacity of the patient to live in a normal world.

But towards the end of the 18th century, the physicians began to use a strategy that has been developed to the present time. It was that sickness was caused by biological and social influences – Nature and Nurture.

The key factor in a psychoanalytical approach came with the writings of Sigmund Freud. He saw that there were 3 levels of awareness – conscious, sub-conscious and unconscious.

We all live in the conscious on a day to day basis. Then we sleep in the sub-conscious. There are memories in the sub-conscious that influence our behaviour. A person may be taken to see a deep waterfall but terrified by a memory of falling down a cliff as a small boy that frightens him still.

The unconscious lies deep in our psyche. These are memories that we have forgotten about but still lurk within us. The answer to many psychological problems may have to be drawn out and faced by the sufferer.

There was one terrible case in the United States over 25 years ago. A young woman went to a psychiatrist and was hypnotised to seek out recall of memories deep in her unconscious.

She started to recall being raped by her pastor father assisted by her mother. The psychiatrist questioned in depth and found out more details of how she would be held down by her mother and raped by her father. She became pregnant.

The matter was reported to the police and the church. The pastor denied his guilt but was expelled by the church and taken to Court.

The young girl could not remember anymore as her hypnosis was finished. But medical checks found that she was a virgin. This caused uproar.

Who was to blame? The suggestion was that the psychiatrist had planted the ideas in the young girl’s head and allowed her to fantasize on what was not real.

This can be a real problem for finding out sexual abuse in young children at the hands of a dishonest counsellor. The ideas are planted in the child.

Does your father touch you here?
Are you sure?
Has he ever touched you here?
Did he push his hand like this?
And did he put his face to you like this?
You were frightened weren’t you?
Did you cry?


Dementia is a state of awareness caused by damage to the brain. This affects perceptions and awareness of reality. Dementia removes the ability of the sufferer to think and usually causes the onset of hallucinations and delusions.

Hallucinations come to the sufferer in the forms of images of which the sufferer is a part. It seems real. The person may wake up to find a group of men and women standing around the bed. They talk to him.

Delusions are beliefs that are not real. The sufferer may think he is in an aircraft and working as the Captain. It is not real.

Dementia comes to people suffering from a stroke, Alzheimers Disease, schizophrenia and HIV/AIDS. In each there has been crucial brain damage.

The dementia may proceed to the point that the sufferer cannot remember his name, where he lives, the number of the bus nor the identity of family and friends.

In the book recorded on Google April Fool written by Bryce Courtenay about his dying HIV infected son Damien, he says that towards the end, the son suffered delusions. He saw himself as a famous doctor, the commander of the army and the commissioner of police.

He believed he had discovered the cure for AIDS and was being pursued by the Central Intelligence Agency. He believed that all doctors and nurses were CIA agents determined to kill him.

There was Linda who died in Port Moresby in 2003. She believed that she was being pursued by highlanders to kill her.

She believed she had killed her ex-husbands girl friend and was being pursued by a Samarai woman, the mother of the girl. She would come at night as a black bird.

There are similarities between the two sufferers above. Both were HIV infected. Both had delusions and hallucinations. Both believed there were people chasing them to kill them.

Three years ago, I spent 3 weeks in ICU at the Port Moresby General Hospital suffering from tuberculosis.

One night, I awoke after a round of drugs to find the walls and ceiling of the room were coloured like a pharoah’s tomb. There was a crocodile in the ceiling trying to reach down to bite me.

Old people with Alzheimers Disease suffer from a wastage of the brain. They slowly forget everything and do not even recognize the faces of their spouse and children.

Chapter 9   Growth of Children

The key lesson to this course is the growth of children. Young people will be close to being married and becoming parents. They need to understand how to raise their children and understand the processes through which the children will go.

Parents have to understand that there is a constant set of stages for a child in growing from a baby to an independent adult. This work was developed by D.P. Ausubel whose work is recorded on Google.

Omnipotent stage.  The child is born and becomes completely helpless for many months. The child depends completely on the mother to help with every cry. The baby cries when hungry. More crying if the nappy is soiled. The child needs to be held by the mother.

The mother comes running. The child has the idea that he/she is the boss. A woman with sweet voice and soft breasts comes at every cry. This perception of being omnipotent may last for over a year.

Satellizing stage.   The child gets to a point of being quite unbearable for the mother and father. They are forever responding to a child’s cries and screams. The time is coming for the baby to learn the facts of life.

The parent starts to discipline the child in loving ways. Screams no longer bring the mother running. The child slowly learns that the way to get what they want is to be polite and helpful to the parents.

They no longer scream. They start to see themselves not as the centre of the universe but as a satellite circling the moon. The child becomes a polite and loving child and gets what they want.

Some children with weak parents never move away from the omnipotent stage and spend their young lives bullying their parents and making demands.

Moving away stage.  Now the child is going to school. No longer does the parent escort the child. Now the child comes home with friends and comes through the front door alone or with friends.

Within a year or two, the child wants to join the school football team and does not want the parents to come. He goes with his friends. He wants money for a drink.

The time is coming for the child to want a boy or girl friend. They want to go to the beach with this person and his friends.

The child is now in high school and wants to study at university. The child is accepted and wants to live in a flat near the high school. The child is moving away from the satellite of family.

The child is now a young man or woman and wants to get married. A baby is born and the son or daughter move into a new life with the child..........

Omnipotent stage.  The child is born and becomes completely helpless for many months. The child depends completely on the mother to help with every cry. The baby cries when hungry. More crying if the nappy is soiled. The child needs to be held by the mother. The wheel continues to turn, generation by generation.

Chapter 10 – parasites, bActeria and viruses

The difficulty in writing this study program is to determine whether or not the focus is still on psychology. There are close links between psychology, medicine and healthy living.

So this book regularly crosses between psychology, medicine, healthy living with occasional reference to sorcery. In the end these are all associated with the brain and its functions.

The key organ in the body is the brain. It sits in the skull and coordinates all functions of all body systems. It consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum, pituitary gland, optic nerve, hypothalamus and spinal cord.

Like every other body organ linked to a body system, there is need for water, salts, nutrients, oxygen and removal of waste. Each cell of the body needs nutrition.

The human being needs food in the form of water, fruit, vegetables, meat, carbohydrates and protein. There is a need to avoid such body contaminants as tobacco, alcohol, drugs and fatty food.

There is a need to protect the body from parasites, bacteria and viruses. Many find their way into the brain and can cause temporary or permanent damage.

It is the task of the human being to live a lifestyle that avoids such sources of damage by hygiene, clean water and food and safe sexual practices.

The HIV virus enters the body through the small intestine and is able to pass through the blood-brain barrier to enter the brain.

It can cause dementia in the later stages of infection and damage the optic nerve. A side effect of the HIV infection is to make the sufferer lose sight. WE have crossed briefly from psychology to medicine.

The anopheles mosquito is the host to the cerebral malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum that causes cerebral malaria. This parasite enters the brain and causes memory loss, inability to stand without falling over and cerebral palsy in the later stages.

There was a young man in the Port Moresby General Hospital some years ago who appeared to be an illegal immigrant.

He was suffering from cerebral malaria which manifested itself in memory loss. He did not know who he was which prevented the hospital staff from contacting his embassy to advise his parents.

His hands were clenched into fists like a person suffering from serious cerebral palsy. Obviously the key parts of his brain had been damaged.

I too was suffering from cerebral malaria having been found unconscious in my flat after not coming to work for three days. I was in no position to give any support to this young man, perhaps from Afghanistan or Iraq.

Chapter 11 – livE a positive lifestyle

So psychology is closely linked to medicine and physiology of the body. To refer to one is to include the others.

We need to understand the working of the brain and nervous system and the need for peace and love. We need to live in a family who will love and care for us and be loved and looked after in return.

Stress of the human being will affect the nervous system and brain and then pass into every other body system.

We need to have peace, love and hope for the future. We have to be in a family with friends to support us and help us relax with humour, laughter, smiles, games and sports.

We would benefit greatly if we were able to play volley ball or touch football every afternoon. We may be part of a faith family with regular worship and fellowship.

We need to eat healthy food that keeps our body strong. There is value in eating fruit and vegetables, ripe and uncooked if possible.

Clean water will pass through our bodies and maintain the water- salt balance or homeostasis. It will prevent dehydration that often accompanies diarrhoea caused by infection in the small intestine and blockage of absorption through the lining of the small intestine or gut.

Each day we need to exercise by jogging, walking or running. This strengthens our muscles and the passage of blood through the vessels to the heart.

Most important of all is to avoid smoking tobacco or marijuana. These cause all kinds of problems to every system of the body. Both will affect the blood and cause the passage of poisons through the body systems.

Marijuana damages the brain often irreversibly. A key message in psychology is not to smoke marijuana. There are countries moving to legalize marijuana.

In Papua New Guinea, there is a very potent species of marijuana grown mainly in the highlands. Every week we read in the media of a gruesome murder in the nation.

A young man has killed his mother with a bush knife. He cut off her breasts and removed her tongue. Then he threw her into the river. That has all the hall marks of a marijuana killing. The young man has become mentally deranged.

There is an increasing number of women and girls who grow marijuana in their village gardens, process and distribute the processed marijuana. Girls smoke marijuana which is becoming the cause of violence of women with other women and with men.

Chapter 12 – Sorcery Killing

The regular incidence of sorcery killing in Papua New Guinea takes us back to the Middle Ages in Europe.

It all starts with a belief in evil demons and spirits. There are people seen to have a close relationship with the underworld who can call upon spirits to wreak damage on other people.

In Europe there was the burning of witches who would have been the village carers in delivering babies and giving herbal medicines to the sick. AS late as the 1600s, there were the witch trials at Salem in the American colony.

The problem in Papua New Guinea comes from the belief that all people die at the hands of other people. If someone dies, there has to be someone to blame. The victim is taken, tortured and killed with no more than a person laying the blame as the result of a dream.

There are those who say that the cause is a lack of education which is probably true. There are few if any sorcery killings in the urban areas.

We are told that if people know about the parasites of malaria and the mosquito, they will be less likely to blame someone. But who sent the mosquitoes to bite the victim who died? It can be a no-win situation.

There are activists in this country who claim that sorcery killing is gender violence against women. This is not true. There are woman sorcerers in some parts of the country and men sorcerers in other parts. So the killing is spread between men and women.

There are hidden agenda in sorcery killing. Many people killed are old without family and live alone. The killers want their land which is becoming scarce in the nation.

At times, the killers are young men who have known these old people all their lives and have now taken it upon themselves to make accusations, bash, burn and kill the old helpless person.

The most recent killing was the burning alive of a young woman Leniata in the highlands. She was accused by a gang led by a woman, doused with petrol and set alight. She has become a symbol of the evil of sorcery killing.

Chapter 13 - Psychology in modern living

In the modern era, psychology is a key factor in modern living. Parents learn of psychology in raising their children to be happy and balanced individuals.

Teachers study psychology to know how to develop a positive learning environment for the children. They come to know the problems and causes of troubled children who may suffer in the home environment.

Doctors and psychiatrists study psychology with psychoanalysis to help people with their personal problems. They treat people with problems caused by brain damage and advise on how to live a positive life.

Rogue advisors learn how to brain wash people into doing what they would not usually do. They encourage them to give money based on false promises. They know that many people believe what they want to believe and do not check on false promises.

Companies employ psychology to establish the intellectual and emotional state of applicants for employment. They use psychiatrists to counsel workers on personal problems.

Schools and universities use psychological testing to establish the mental state of applicants for work.

The Defence Forces use psychological testing in the selection of officers and employment of soldiers in combat roles.  It is also used in psychological warfare against an enemy.


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Explain the evil past of the experts of the mind
Why were witches burned at the stake?
What was phrenology?
How was phrenology used in the penal system?
Explain the past view of Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons?
What was the Cephalic Index?
How is DNA being used today?
What is the view of the human race on animals?
Are gays and lesbians always born that way?
What is Nature and Nurture?
Explain the life of Thomas Ponsonby.
Should criminals be executed? Explain.
Explain treatment of mentally ill in past centuries.
Explain the theory of Sigmund Freud.
What is modern psychological treatment?
What is dementia?
What is hallucination?
Explain dementia on an AIDS infected person.
How does dementia affect a person?
Explain the growth of children.
How does HIV affect the brain?
Explain effects of cerebral malaria on the brain.
What do we do to have a positive lifestyle?
How can we harm our bodies?
Explain the burning of witches in early Europe.
Explain the sorcery killings in Papua New Guinea.
How can sorcery killing be stopped in this country?
Explain ways psychology is used in the modern world.
What was the theory of E. H. Ericksen?


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