faith, hope, peace, love, truth, compassion, trust, patience, honesty, kindness, family, friends, forgiveness, fellowship, work, sleep, exercise, relax, clean water, morning sun, nutritious food, fresh vegetables, fruit, grains and nuts, rights, responsibilities, obligations, clean blood and tissues, clean in body, mind and soul AND FREEDOM FROM hate, greed, fear, stress, violence, rejection, infection, starvation, beer, homebrew, tobacco, marijuana and drugs (Christian and Buddhist teachings)
Thursday, 19 June 2014
WRITING ESSAYS FOR GRADE 12
Think globally and write locally
There is a special skill in writing essays which will gain a
pass mark for Written Expression exams.
The key skill is to understand the big
picture and write to the big picture. If the topic is on a PNG issue, start
with a world view and work down to PNG.
development of Papua New Guinea
All countries have the same basic problems in development.
The key is to support a growing population. The developed world grew through
trade with the developing countries that had become colonies of empires.
The developed world of Europe and America needed raw
materials to support their secondary industries. They fought wars to keep their
colonies and sources of raw materials.
Even with independence, little has changed for the colonies
now calling themselves independent nations. They still need to sell raw
materials and import manufactured goods.
They find no difficulty in allowing foreign countries to
extract minerals including natural gas. But they find great problems in selling
agricultural products to those same developed countries.
Papua New Guinea is a newly developed nation with no
infrastructure for manufactured goods except for basic domestic products. Some
technical goods are manufactured overseas but assembled in country.
Most secondary goods are imported which makes for problems
when the currency declines and the nation has to pay more for foreign imports.
Papua New Guinea will never sell oranges to Australia because the citrus
industry has to be protected.
So Papua New Guinea suffers from many problems from the need
to sell primary products and import most secondary goods. An economy based on
primary production and tertiary support will not employ all those seeking work
in the nation. Unemployment is high with great problems for school leavers of
Rights of women
Over the last century in the world, there has been a long
process of seeking the rights of women.
In the 1920s in England, women campaigned for the right to
vote with opposition from those men who said that women were not emotionally
fit to have a voice in the affairs of the nation.
But the scene changed with the two world wars when men went
to fight in the battlefields of Europe and the Pacific. Women joined them as
Other women worked in the munitions factories to make war
supplies. This placed them in a better position to have equal rights to men.
The rights of women increased in the 1960s with the Vietnam
War and the protest particularly in Australia and the United States. Following
the 1970s, women were given equal pay for equal work.
But the arguments remained that the place for women was in
the home having babies and looking after the family. The same argument remains
in Papua New Guinea.
The pressures on equality for women in the world has extended
to Papua New Guinea in modern times. There is now pressure from the United
Nations on the rights of women. Laws have been passed to prosecute men violent
to women and girls.
Problems have arisen in PNG with the freedom of women, many
of whom will take the opportunity to be involved in adultery with mobile
phones, marijuana and homebrew. There will be violence of women towards men.
The wantok system places women in a difficult position with
the continuation of bride price, men taking more than one wife, women unable to
control birth through family planning and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.
But the role of women is changing. They must not be
disheartened by the failure of the 22 seats in parliament.
Women are being urged to involve themselves in business and
to continue through to high school. Universal Basic Education gives a greater
chance to all boys and girls.
But women still suffer from unwanted pregnancies and
HIV/AIDS. Many young girls sell their bodies as their families cannot provide
their financial needs.
Pollution of the
World pollution began with the industrial revolution in the
1600s but has only just started to damage the world in recent decades.
In earlier times, the view was that rubbish could be thrown
into rivers and the seas. Though many developed countries have worked to clean
up the environment, there are still countries including PNG that use the rivers
as garbage dumps.
The worst pollution comes from developed countries still
locked into burning of coal and smelting of iron. These countries are pouring
massive amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and increasing the
inevitability of global warming.
China has the worst track record in pollution that is so bad
that rivers, seas, ground soil and human bodies are being damaged.
Toxic waste is being poured into the seas. Papua New Guinea
will find that the Ramu and Sepik Rivers are being damaged by toxic waste from
the gold mines.
Papua New Guinea has allowed mining companies to pour their
waste into rivers. The Fly River has been irreparably damaged.
About 20 years ago, a barge on the way up the Fly River sank
allowing a large load of cyanide in drums to sink into the depths of the river.
These drums have never been recovered and are a waiting time bomb.
Pollution in the Magadus Square from the Sepik and Ramu
Rivers will damage the breeding grounds of the yellow fin tuna that live and
move in the entire Pacific rim.
There is a major problem in the world with the wholesale
removal of jungle in South America, Africa and the Pacific.
The Amazon River of Brazil was once deep jungle that has now
become grasslands for cattle. This will directly affect the global warming and
levels of rainfall.
Global warming is melting the icecaps and glaciers of the
world. This is causing an increasing rise in the sea levels. Already there are
small island nations in the Pacific that are being covered by water.
So the industrial revolution that began 300 years ago has
begun to damage the earth. Climate changes are occurring with new patterns of
rainfall, droughts, floods, hurricanes and tornados.
The United States in particular is suffering from hurricanes
from the Gulf of Mexico and east coast. There is a collision of cold air from
the Arctic that meets the warm winds from the Gulf of Mexico producing
countless numbers of tornadoes.
Will it ever stop?We
learn from the story of Superman. Krypton was destroyed while the inhabitants
argued. And Superman came to earth to work as a mild mannered reporter on the