Many uneducated women in PNG do not know the difference between discipline and training. They will hit a child for putting faeces on the floor. I once saw a small child punched by an aunty for refusing to come to be washed.
Abuse of children is wider than that among mothers who spend all day playing cards in the dirt of a village. Children are not washed. Small children are naked and dirty, often with sores on the body.
The mother spends all available family money on cards rather than food for the children. A hungry child will be given a two kina note to buy a dry bun and a soft drink.
Violence can come from a husband who comes home from work to find his clothes not washed and food not cooked. Food money has been spent on cards. The house is filthy. The man will get the blame as the wife is obviously a caring angel. Ask the UN activists.